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McGraw-Hill. © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter. 8. Entrepreneurship. McGraw-Hill. © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:.

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McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide2

Chapter

8

Entrepreneurship

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

learning objectives after reading this chapter you should be able to
Learning ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to:
  • Distinguish between an entrepreneurship and a small business.
  • Develop negotiation, networking, and leadership skills that can help you as an entrepreneur.
  • Recognize why some entrepreneurships fail.
  • Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the legal forms of enterprises.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

learning objectives continued
Learning Objectives(continued)
  • Learn how capital is raised through debt and equity financing and recognize the merits of each approach.
  • Evaluate alternative forms of entrepreneurship, such as franchising, spin-offs, and intrapreneurships.
  • Recognize and evaluate entrepreneurship as a career path and a source of innovation and new job opportunities.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

introduction
Introduction
  • Creating a new enterprise is one of the greatest management challenges.
  • Entrepreneurs have built successful companies by being able to exploit unmet needs in the market.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

what is entrepreneurship
What is Entrepreneurship?
  • The process of creating a business enterprise capable of entering new or established markets.
  • It involves deploying resources and people in a unique way to develop a new organization.
  • An entrepreneur is an individual who creates an enterprise that becomes a new entry to a market.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

entrepreneurship myths
Entrepreneurship Myths
  • Myth 1: Entrepreneurs are born, not made.
  • Myth 2: It is necessary to have access to money to become an entrepreneur.
  • Myth 3: An entrepreneur takes a large or irrational risk in starting a business.
  • Myth 4: Most successful entrepreneurs start with a break-through invention.
  • Myth 5: Entrepreneurs become successful on their first venture.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

entrepreneurial venture versus small business management
Small Business

Independently owned and operated

Small in size

Does not dominate its markets

Has less than 100 employees

Entrepreneurship

Growth is one of the most important goals

The goal is to become a medium-sized firm of 100-499 employees; or

A large firm with 500 or more employees.

Entrepreneurial Venture versus Small Business Management

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the importance of entrepreneurship
The Importance of Entrepreneurship
  • Job Creation
    • Entrepreneurship accounts for most new jobs in the U.S. economy.
  • Innovation
    • Entrepreneurships are responsible for introducing a major proportion of new and innovative products and services into market.
  • Opportunities for Diverse People
    • People of diverse background can improve their economic status by becoming entrepreneurs.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

key characteristics of entrepreneurs
Key Characteristics of Entrepreneurs
  • High need for achievement
  • Internal locus of control
  • Willingness to take risks
  • Self-confidence

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

entrepreneurial skills
Entrepreneurial Skills
  • Negotiation skills
    • Ability to obtain resources that are controlled by other individuals.
  • Networking skills
    • Gather information and build alliances
      • Personal network
      • Business network
  • Leadership skills
    • Provide a shared vision

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

starting and managing an entrepreneurship
Starting and Managing an Entrepreneurship

New Ideas come from:

  • newspapers, magazines, and trade journals
  • inventions or discoveries
  • trade shows and exhibitions
  • hobbies
  • family members
  • business school classes

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

why entrepreneurships fail
Why Entrepreneurships Fail
  • Lack of capital
  • Poor knowledge of the market
  • Faulty product design
  • Human resource problems
  • Poor understanding of the competition

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

business plan
Business Plan
  • Once an entrepreneur conceives a good idea for a new venture, next critical step is to prepare a business plan.
  • It is a blueprint that maps out the business strategy for entering markets.
  • It explains the business to potential investors.
  • It develops strategies and tactics to minimize risk of failure.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

key components of the business plan
Key Components of the Business Plan
  • Description of the product or service
  • Analysis of market trends and potential competitors
  • Estimate for pricing the product or service
  • Estimate for the time it will take to generate profits
  • Plan for manufacturing the product
  • Plan for growth and expansion of the business
  • Sources of funding
  • Plan for obtaining financing
  • Organizational and management plan

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

legal forms of entrepreneurship
Legal Forms of Entrepreneurship
  • Proprietorship – business owned by an individual
  • Partnership – association of two or more persons acting as co-owners of a business
  • Corporation – legal entity separate from the individuals who own it

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

proprietorship
Advantages

Easy to create

Owner keeps all profits

Owner makes all decisions

Disadvantages

Unlimited liability

Harder to obtain credit and capital

Proprietorship

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

partnership
Advantages

Ease of formation

Direct share of profits

Division of labor and management responsibility

More capital available than in a sole proprietorship

Less governmental control and regulation

Disadvantages

Unlimited liability for firm’s debt

Limited continuity of life of enterprise

Difficulty in obtaining capital

Partners share responsibility for other partners’ actions.

Partnership

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

corporation
Advantages

Owners’ liability for the firm’s debt limited to their investment

Ease of raising large amounts of capital

Ease of transfer of ownership through sale of stock

Life of enterprise distinct from owners

Disadvantages

Extensive government regulation of activities

High corporation fees

Corporate capital, profits, dividends, and salaries double-taxed

Activities limited to those stated in charter.

Corporation

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

sources of financial resources
Sources of Financial Resources
  • Debt Financing –obtaining a commercial loan setting up a plan to repay the principal and interest
  • Equity Financing –raising money by selling part ownership of the business to investors
    • Private investors
    • Venture capitalists
    • Public offerings of stock

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

managing growth
Managing Growth
  • Entrepreneurs need to manage business growth by establishing benchmarks based on:
    • Market data
    • A thorough analysis of the firm’s ability to handle increased demand without sacrificing quality
  • The business plan is a way for planning growth targets and managing to them.
  • Too much growth can strain operations.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

problems of growing too quickly
Problems of Growing Too Quickly
  • Cash flow crisis as a result of spending most available cash on expansion and not meeting obligations to creditors.
  • Employees are likely to experience stress from rapid changes and growth.
  • Accounting and information systems are not adequate for the larger business.
  • Growing so quickly that control is lost

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

alternative forms of entrepreneurship
Alternative Forms of Entrepreneurship

Intrapreneurship

Spin-Offs

Franchises

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

innovation
Innovation
  • Exploring and developing new technologies and new ways of doing things
  • Vital for the future viability of an organization
  • Innovation is a key to long-term success

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

innovation five c s
Innovation: Five C’s
  • Capability
  • Culture
  • Cash and Recognition
  • Customer Orientation
  • Cut Losses

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

applications management is everyone s business for the manager
Applications: Management is Everyone’s Business—For the Manager
  • As an entrepreneurship grows, the owner must learn how to manage a growing and increasingly complex enterprise.
  • A key success factor is the entrepreneur’s ability to delegate responsibilities and duties to others.
  • As the firm grows, the entrepreneur must incorporate the role of manager.
    • Being more systematic in dealing with business issues.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

applications management is everyone s business for managing teams
Applications: Management is Everyone’s Business—For Managing Teams
  • Many entrepreneurships are started by founding teams of two or more people.
  • Teams can bring more ideas, creativity, and competencies to a new venture.
  • Entrepreneurs in teams must learn how to share power and authority with partners and develop ways to settle conflicts.
    • Advisory board can provide counsel.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

applications management is everyone s business for individuals
Applications: Management is Everyone’s Business—For Individuals
  • Entrepreneurs must temper overconfidence.
  • Overconfidence occurs when decision makers have overly optimistic assessments and fail to examine all available information.
    • Advisory board can provide perspective.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.