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Reconstruction IDs. Freedman’s Bureau. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned lands Created to provide food, clothing, healthcare, and education for both black and white refugees in the South. Helped reunite families seperated by slavery and war.

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freedman s bureau
Freedman’s Bureau
  • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned lands
  • Created to provide food, clothing, healthcare, and education for both black and white refugees in the South.
  • Helped reunite families seperated by slavery and war.
  • Negotiated fair labor contracts between former slaves and white landowners.
  • Established the precedent that black citizens had legal rights.
black codes
Black Codes
  • Laws that sought to limit the rights of African Americans and to keep them as landless workers.
  • Required African Americans to work only in certain occupations.
  • Prohibited African Americans from owning land.
  • Vagrancy laws
14 th amendment
14th Amendment
  • A constitutional amendment that stated all citizens should have “Equal protection under the law.” This amendment guaranteed equality under the law for all citizens.
  • Part II on your own. P. 151
  • Part III on your own.
15 th amendment
15th Amendment
  • Forbids any state from denying suffrage on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • Gives African Americans the right to vote.
  • Left room for evasion (literacy tests, property requirements etc…)
military reconstruction act of 1867 radical republican reconstruction congressional reconstruction
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867/ Radical Republican Reconstruction/ Congressional Reconstruction
  • Nullified the moderate programs of Andrew Johnson
  • Divided the former Confederacy into five military districts
  • A Union general was placed in charge of each district with orders to maintain peace and protect the rights of persons and property.
  • Northern Republicans that migrated to the south after the Civil War.
  • Local residents often viewed carpetbaggers as intruders who sought to exploit the south's postwar turmoil for their own gain.
  • Derogatory term for white southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction.
ku klux klan
Ku Klux Klan
  • A secret society formed to undermine Republican rule and reconstruction efforts.
  • Hooded, white robed Klan members rode through the south at night terrorizing African Americans, Republicans, carpetbaggers, teachers in African American schools, and others who supported Republican governments.
  • In 1870 and 1871 Pres. Grant and Congress passed a series of Enforcement Acts to limit the power of the Klan.
compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
  • Compromise to decided who would win the election of 1876, Hayes or Tilden.
  • Southern democrats would give the election to Hayes if a southerner would be made postmaster general
  • Republicans promised funds for internal improvements to the south
  • Republicans also promised to remove federal troops from the south.
  • Ended Reconstruction
jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws
  • Laws that enforced segregation and perpetuated discrimination against African-Americans.
literacy tests
Literacy Tests
  • Some states required that prospective voters be literate, so tests were given to test literacy.( the ability to read or understand the Constitution)
  • These tests were used to disenfranchise blacks in the south as test officials could pass or fail applicants as they wished.
poll taxes
Poll Taxes
  • Southern states passed laws requiring all citizens registering to vote must pay a tax.
  • This disenfranchised people living in poverty.
  • Grandfather clauses were eventually used to exclude poor white southerners from poll taxes.
grandfather clauses
Grandfather Clauses
  • Any man could vote (without a poll tax or a literacy test) who had an ancestor on the voting rolls before 1865.
  • This made almost all African-Americans ineligible to vote.
  • Executions without proper court proceedings.
  • Between 1890-1899 there was an average of 187 lynchings per year.
  • Over 80% of these lynchings were carried out in the South, and 70% of the victims were African Americans.
ida b wells
Ida B. Wells
  • An African-American woman from Tennessee who crusaded against lynching.
booker t washington
Booker T. Washington
  • African American educator who proposed that African Americans should concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones.
  • He believed that the fight for civil rights should be postponed and that African Americans instead shoulde prepare themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality.
w e b du bois
W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Du Bois believed that African Americans would only gain full rights by demanding equality.
  • He argued that even though African Americans had made educational and vocational gains, southerners were still denying them of equal rights.
  • Particularly concerned with voting rights.