An historical perspective on aspects of spoken grammar. Ivor Timmis, Leeds Metropolitan University. Spoken Grammar Findings.
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Leeds Metropolitan University
McCarthy and Carter (1995: 142)
“…a new description of a feature or a new perspective on a feature does not necessarily imply that the feature described is itself new or that it has recently acquired a new function” (Timmis 2010: 1).
First child: There’s no dragons today
Second child: Yes, there is
C1: There’s not
C2: There is
C1: No, there’s not
C2: There is. Dragons eat people in Australia. There’s kangaroos there
C1: There’s not
C2: There are
There was many Dukes, Erles and Barons c.1533
“…existential there can be seen as a way for speakers to take the floor quickly and easily in lively conversation. Clearly it would be functional for such a useful construction to be shared and accessed as a prefabricated phrase….”
a)Noun alone can be a tail (Aijmer 1989)
b) Demonstrative pronoun alone can be a tail (Aijmer 1989)
c) The tail can include an operator which follows the noun (Carter, Hughes and McCarthy 1998)
d) The tail can include an operator which precedes the noun (Carter, Hughes and McCarthy 1998)
Evaluation and tails (e.g. Aijmer 1989)
Around 50% of the tails in the Bolton corpus follow a clause in which there is an evaluative adjective ( e.g. ‘good’ 10 times)
e.g. She’s a good girl, that. She never grumbles whether thi’ lose or not.
e.g. rum, awful, shocking, numb, stiff, bloody 
e.g. nuisance, sluvvin [sloven], outrage, bestiality, bugger  and pillan [pillock].