CHAPTER 3. An Historical Perspective of Etiologies.
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Scientists often strive for special status by claiming a unique form of “objectivity” inherent in a supposedly universal procedure called the scientific method. . . . This image may be beguiling, but the claim is chimerical, and ultimately haughty and divisive. For the myth of pure perception raises scientists to a pinnacle above all other struggling intellectuals, who must remain mired in constraints of culture and psyche. (p. 148)
Stephen Jay Gould (1995)
Slavish adherence to a theoretical protocol and maniacal promotion of a single theoretical approach are utterly in opposition to science. (p. 217) Bruce Wampold (2001)
Jill Cockburn (2004)
“Psychoanalytic theories seem to suggest that man is basically a battlefield. He is in a dark cellar in which a well-bred spinster lady and a sex-crazed monkey are forever engaged in mortal combat, the struggle being refereed by a rather nervous bank clerk.” (1966, p. 21) Don Bannister
Empirical Evidence (continued):
The Diagnsogenic/Semantogenic theory
The diagnosis of stuttering—that is, the decision made by someone that a child is beginning to stutter—is one of the causes of the stuttering problem, and apparently one of the most potent causes. Having labeled the child’s hesitations and repetitions as “stuttering,” the listener—somewhat more often the mother than the father—reacts to them as if they were all that the label implies. (Johnson, 1962, p. 2)
Wada test, dichotic listening studies, & decreased REA for verbal stimuli
(Ingham et al., 2007; pp. 59–60)
Stuttering occurs when structural or functional anomalies impair the medial system
Fluency-inducing conditions shift speech motor timing to the lateral system, bypassing the instability of the medial system.
(Starkweather & Gottwald, 1990)
(De Nil, 1999)
(Smith 1990, 1999; Smith & Kelly, 1997)
Demands:both environmental and internal
Motoric:The ability to initiate and control coarticulatory movements smoothly, rapidly, and with minimal effort
Linguistic:The ability to formulate sentences
Socioemotional:The ability to produce smooth movements when under communicative or emotional stress)
Cognitive:The ability to use metalinguistic skills.
Refer to Figure 3-2 for the Stuttering Diagnostic Space