fall protection and prevention l.
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  2. Disclaimer The information presented in this presentation has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable and is intended to be a tool to assist and guide you in building your own presentation. This program may not address all the hazardous conditions or unsafe acts that may exist. For that reason, SPIN cautions users to confirm accuracy and compliance with the latest standards and best practices. Local, State/Provincial and Federal regulations take precedence over this material. Implementation of any practices suggested by this program is at your sole discretion, and SPIN will have no liability to any party for any damages including, but not limited to, direct, indirect, special or consequential damages, arising out of or in connection with the information provided or its use.

  3. Guardrail Systems • defined as a barrier erected to prevent workers from falling to lower levels. • A guardrail system must be used: • on unprotected sides or edges of a ramp or runway. • on unprotected sides or edges of holes. • to restrict access to hoist areas when not used for hoisting.

  4. Guardrail Systems • No openings can be more than 19” apart. • When holes are used to pass materials, no more than two sides of the guardrail may be removed at a time. • Never use a guardrail as a place to tie off! • Guardrails must be inspected as often as needed

  5. Standard Guardrail System Top Rail 2 x 4 material Mid Rail 2 x 4 material Toeboard 42 ” +/- 3 ” 21 ” Verticals - 8 foot max spacing 2 x 4 material All guardrails must meet the following criteria: 1. It must resist a 200 # force within 2” of the top edge in an outward or downward direction at any location along the top rail. 2. Midrails must resist a 150 # force along any point of the rail. 3. Toeboards must resist a 50 # force along any point. 4. Guardrails may be constructed of wood, pipe, roping or wire

  6. Guardrail Systems Next floor or roof deck Columns Cable secured at columns 42 ” 21 ” Wire rope 1/4 ” minimum dia. with Floor or deck flagging at 6’ centers.

  7. Special Applications Add additional top rail as needed for workers on stilts or scaffolds where guardrails do not exist. 21” 42 ” +/- 3 ” 21 ”

  8. Floor and Roof Access Openings Roof opening or deck opening Standard guardrail system Path of workers to access ladder or stairs Path

  9. Wall Openings Window openings A 39 ” minimum A Section A-A Elevation

  10. Roof Systems With Parapet Walls Parapet wall Roof deck 39 ” minimum

  11. Safety Net Systems • Safety net systems are used to catch people or tools, material or equipment. • Safety nets must be installed as close as practical under the surface where employees are working. • Note: The safety nets must never be more than 30 feet below the working surface.

  12. Safety net Requirements: • The safety net must be installed so that if something falls into the net, it will not touch structures or surfaces below. • The fall area between the working surface and the net must be free of obstructions. • Safety net must extend out as follows: Distance net should be extended from edge of the working surface Distance from working level to net 8 feet 10 feet 13 feet Up to 5 feet Over 5 feet up to 10 feet Over 10 feet

  13. Tools, scrap, or equipment that fall into a net must be removed as soon as possible, • Mesh openings cannot be larger than 36 square inches, or longer than 6” on any side. • The border rope of a safety net must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 lbs.. • Safety nets must be inspected: • weekly for wear, damage and other deterioration • after any use that could affect the net

  14. Drop Testing • Safety nets must be drop-tested, on site: • before use • after any major repair to the system • every six months if left in one place for extended periods of time. • Drop-test is done by by dropping a 400 lb. sandbag, 28” to 32” in diameter, into the net.

  15. Personal Fall Arrest Systems • A system used to protect an employee in a fall from a working level. • It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. • As of January 1, 1998 the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited! • Employers must plan the rescue of the worker

  16. Lanyard Before Fall Shock Absorber 1. Working Surface Free Fall 2. Deceleration(Shock Absorber Activation) 3. Closest Object in Fall Path Clearance Lanyard Device 1.) Free Fall Distance. Limited to 6’ 2.) Total Fall Distance. The sum of the fall distance and deceleration distance. 3.) Deceleration distance. Must not exceed 3.5’.

  17. Swing Fall Hazard Anchorage's Swing Fall Hazard Correct Incorrect

  18. Anchorage Connector’s • Anchorage point must be able to withstand a force of 3’000 lbs. • Must never use guardrails as a point of anchorage.

  19. POSSIBLE ANCHORAGE DESIGN Wire rope diameter sized based Eye bolt designed for load on loading requirements requirements Slab or deck Washer plates to distribute the load

  20. Tag Line EyeBolt EyeBolt Tag Lines Snap Hook Snap Hook • First: Pull down on tag line until cable is within reach. • Second: To test-pull sharply on cable to activate lock. To unlock relieve tension of cable. • Third: Attach eye of steel cable to harness with snap hook- then climb. Snap Hook Tag Line

  21. Positioning Devices • The difference between fall arrest systems and positioning, is that fall arrest systems are designed to stop a fall while a positioning device is used to hold you in position while you’re working. • Note: A positioning device does not protect you while you’re moving!

  22. Requirements: • The positioning device must be rigged so that a worker cannot free fall more than 2’. • Anchorage's must be able to support two times the potential impact of a worker’s fall or 3,000 lbs., whichever is greater. • Connectors must be: • drop forged, pressed or formed steel • corrosion resistant with smooth edges • Snap hooks must be of the double locking type to prevent unintentional opening.

  23. Making Connections

  24. Warning Line Systems • A warning line system is used in areas where work conditions make it impossible or would create a greater hazard to use other means of fall protection. • It is defined as a barrier erected on a roof to alert workers to the fact that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge.

  25. Additional Requirements: • Rope, wire or chain can be used. • The line must be marked every 6’ with a highly visible material. • The line must be between 34-39 inches from the working surface. • The post that support the line must be able to withstand at least 16 lbs. of pressure without tipping over. • The line must be firmly attached to the posts so that if it’s pulled in one area it doesn’t take up the slack in another.

  26. Warning Lines around Mechanical Equipment • Defined as all motor or human propelled wheeled equipment used for roofing work, except wheelbarrows and mop carts. • When mechanical equipment is used or stored, the warning line must be no less than 6’ from the roof edge

  27. Warning Lines around Mechanical Equipment: Parallel 6’ Warning Line Note: Mechanical equipment can only be used or stored where a warning line, guardrail, or personal fall arrest system is in place. Mechanical Equipment 10’

  28. Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) • CAZ restrict entry to bricklaying and leading edge work areas when conventional fall protection systems (guardrails, safety nets, etc.,) cannot be used or may create a greater hazard. • In order to use a CAZ for overhand bricklaying, workers must not reach more than ten inches below the working level to do the work.

  29. Requirements: • The CAZ uses a control line to restrict access to leading edges. • Control line must: • Run the full length of the leading edge and connect on each side to a guardrail or wall. • Be made of rope, wire, tape or equivalent material and be supported by posts. • Be marked at least every 6’ with a highly visible material.

  30. Additional Requirements: • The control line must have at least a 200 lb. breaking strength. • The control line must also be between 39” and 45” inches from the working surface, including the highest and the lowest points. Exception:For overhand bricklaying areas where the highest point can be 50”. Note:Only workers who are doing overhand bricklaying or leading edge work are permitted in this area.

  31. Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) 25 feet maximum 6’ minimum Standard Guardrail System in from edge of structure Leading edge Progress of work Warning Line Control Access Zone (CAZ)

  32. Safety Monitoring Systems • This system is used to protect workers on low-sloped roofs, in leading edge operation, and in pre-cast concrete. • The safety monitor consist of a competent person who is responsible for recognizing fall hazards. • A competent person not only understands the hazards but has the authority to take actions to eliminate them.

  33. Requirements: • The safety monitor must: • have no other responsibilities that would interfere with the monitoring function. • be on the same working level as the workers • When using the safety monitoring system: • no mechanical equipment may be used or stored on low-sloped roof areas • only workers covered by the plan may enter area • all workers in area must comply with monitors warnings

  34. Fall Protection Covers • Covers are used to prevent workers from falling through holes in floors, roofs or other working surfaces. • A hole is defined as any gap or void 2” or more in its least dimension.

  35. Requirements: • Roadway covers must support, without failure, at least two times the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle that may cross the cover. • Other covers must support, without failure, at least two times the weight of workers, equipment and materials. • All covers must be secured so they cannot be displaced by wind, equipment or workers. • All covers must be color coded coded or marked with the word hole or cover.

  36. Protection From Falling Objects • Protection from falling objects lists the requirements for toe-boards, guardrail, and canopies that are used to protect workers below from being struck by falling objects.

  37. Requirements: • Toe-boards must be: • at least 3-1/2” high • placed no more than 1/4” above the working surface • able to withstand a 50lb. force from a downward and outward direction. • When tools or materials are piled higher than the toe-board, paneling or screening must be added between the toe-board and the mid-rail.

  38. Additional Requirements: • Where roofing operations are underway: • materials and equipment may not be stored within 6’ of the edge, unless a guardrail system is in place. • material stacked near a roof edge must be stable and self-supporting. • Canopies used to protect workers must be strong enough to prevent collapse or penetration of any items that fall on it.

  39. Fall Protection Plan • When an employer can prove that it’s not feasible or may create an even greater hazard to use a conventional fall protection system, a fall protection plan may be used. • This option is only available to those working in leading edge or pre-cast concrete.

  40. Requirements: • Be designed for each specific work site, by a qualified person. • It must be kept on site, with any changes noted. • State why other systems can not be used. • Must also show how workers will be protected. • Identify the workers in CAZ. • Be under the direction of a competent person.

  41. Inspection & Maintenance • Equipment may not be modified in any way • Must be inspected before and after each use • Must be taken out of service if any defects are found

  42. Inspection & Maintenance

  43. As a Safety Professional, SPIN encourages you to submit safety resources that are particularly beneficial to fellow Safety Professionals. We welcome your suggestions and thank you for your input. Please use the following instructions when submitting resources. 1. Please include your full name (first & last) in the subject section of the your email 2. Please include a brief description, name of program and version of any and all files submitted 3. Please use a compression program, like WinZip, when submitting multiple or large files 4 Please include appropriate contact information (name, phone number, etc.) when referring potential new members 5. Include links to safety related URL's in the description section 6. Please send photos and graphic files as 72 dpi jpg, tif or gif files submit all items to:info@spin-safety.org For more information about SPIN visit the web-site at www.spin-safety.org or call 1-800-673-0439