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Fall Prevention & Protection. Valley City State University | Facilities Services | . This presentation will discuss : The working conditions that prompt use of fall protection Options that are available to protect workers from falls Ladder Safety Scaffolding Safety. Introduction.

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fall prevention protection

Fall Prevention & Protection

Valley City State University | Facilities Services |


This presentation will discuss:

    • The working conditions that prompt use of fall protection
    • Options that are available to protect workers from falls
    • Ladder Safety
    • Scaffolding Safety
general requirement

Each employee or contractor on a walking/working surface four feet or more above a lower level must be prevented or protected from falling.

    • Prevention can be achieved by use of guardrails or stair rails, personal fall arrest systems (a body harness and lanyard that is attached to an anchorage point),
General Requirement
walking working surfaces

Must be designed, built, and maintained free of recognized hazards.

  • Must be designed, built, and maintained to support the maximum intended load and should never have the maximum intended load exceeded.
  • Must have safe means of access and egress.
  • Must regularly be inspected and maintained.
  • Must have all hazardous conditions immediately corrected, repaired, or temporarily guarded to prevent use.
Walking/Working Surfaces

A hole is defined as a gap or opening of one inch in its least dimension in a walking or working surface.

  • Holes must be protected by standard railings with toe boards or by covers.
  • Skylight covers or guards must be capable of supporting at least 200 pounds.




All stairs with 4 or more risers must have standard stair rails or handrails.

  • The vertical height must be between 30-34 inches from the surface of the tread at the front of the tread.
stairways cont

Fixed stairs must be provided for access from one level to another where operations necessitate regular travel between levels, such as each day or each shift.

  • Where handrails are provided, they must be used.
  • Stairways with for or more risers or more than 30 inches high must have a stair rail along each unprotected side or edge.
Stairways (cont.)
aerial lifts

A body harness and lanyard attached to the manufacturer’s designed anchorage point must be worn when working from an aerial lift.

  • The area under the lift in use must be blocked to prevent pedestrian or vehicle traffic.
Aerial Lifts
fixed ladders

All fixed ladders, where the length of the climb is more than 20 feet, must have:

    • A cage, or
    • A ladder safety device
Fixed Ladders
portable ladders

A harness and a lanyard is not required when using a portable ladder for its intended purpose.

  • The ladder must be properly erected, with the user facing it and maintaining a position with the belt buckle between the side rails at all times.
Portable Ladders
general ladder requirements

Use ladders only for their designed purpose.

  • When using a portable ladder for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface.
  • DON’T tie ladders together to make longer sections, unless designed for such use.
  • DON’T load ladders beyond the maximum load for which they were built, nor beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity.
General Ladder Requirements
general ladder requirements cont

Ladders must be kept in a safe condition:

    • Keep the area around the top and bottom of a ladder clear.
    • Ensure rungs, cleats, and steps are level and uniformly spaced.
    • Ensure rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches apart.
    • Keep ladders free from slipping hazards.
General Ladder Requirements (cont.)
securing ladders

Secure ladders to prevent accidental movement due to workplace activity

  • Only use ladders on stable and level surfaces, unless secured
  • Do not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet
  • Brace the bottom of the ladder with a 2x4 or by having another person hold it, or by using a stake to prevent the ladder from falling


  • By tying off to a secure anchor at the top of the ladder to prevent the ladder from falling if left unattended.
Securing Ladders
ladder angle

Non-self-supporting ladders (which lean against a wall or other support)

    • Position at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is ¼ the working length of the ladder.
Ladder Angle
what is a scaffold

An elevated, temporary work platform

  • Three basic types:
    • Supported Scaffolds—platforms supported by rigid, load bearing members, such as poles, legs, frames, and outriggers
    • Suspended Scaffolds—platforms suspended by ropes or other non-rigid, overhead support
    • Aerial Lifts—such as “cherry pickers” or “boom trucks”
What is a Scaffold?
scaffold hazards

Employees working on scaffolds are exposed to these hazards:

    • Falls from elevation—caused by slipping, unsafe access, and the lack of fall protection
    • Struck by falling tools or debris
    • Electrocution—from overhead power lines
    • Scaffold collapse—cause by instability or overloading
    • Bad planking giving way
Scaffold Hazards
scaffold fall hazards protection

Falls may occur:

    • While climbing on or off the scaffold
    • Working on unguarded scaffold platforms
    • When scaffold platforms or planks fail
  • Fall Protection
    • If a worker on a scaffold can fall more than 10 feet:
      • Guardrails
      • Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS)
Scaffold Fall Hazards/Protection
scaffolding supports

Erect on stable and level ground

  • Lock wheels and braces
  • Scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights must be on base plates and mud sills or other firm foundation
Scaffolding Supports
personal fall arrest system

If fall hazards of 4 feet or more cannot be controlled with standard rails or covers, or

  • If the work cannot be performed with scaffolds, lifts or ladders, then…
  • A personal fall arrest system must be used.
Personal Fall Arrest System
personal fall arrest system cont

A personal fall arrest system consists of:

    • Body Harness
    • Lanyard with locking snap hooks, attached to an appropriate anchorage point.
Personal Fall Arrest System (cont.)
anchorage points

Personal Fall Arrest equipment must be attached to an anchorage point:

    • Capable of supporting 5,000 pounds/ person attached to it, or
    • Designed by a qualified person with a safety factor or twice the maximum anticipated force generated during the fall.
Anchorage Points
anchorage points cont

Employees must NOT tie off to:

    • Conduit
    • Sprinkler pipes
    • Standard railings
    • Sharp-edged objects, such as I-beams (unless a beam strap or other product designed to prevent cutting the lanyard is used.)
Anchorage Points (cont.)
personal fall arrest system1

The fall arrest system must limit the force on a falling employee by:

    • Using a deceleration device, such as a shock absorbing or self-retracting lanyard.
    • Limiting free fall to no more than 6 feet.
    • Not allowing a falling employee to contact a lower level.
  • Anchorage points must be overhead whenever possible.
Personal Fall Arrest System
personal fall arrest equipment

Personal fall arrest equipment must be inspected prior to each use.

  • Damaged or defective equipment must be removed from service.
  • After a fall, the personal fall arrest equipment must be removed from service, and the anchorage point must be inspected for damage.
Personal Fall Arrest Equipment
this concludes this portion of the training
This concludes this portion of the training…

Take a 5 minute stretch break before we continue to the next module.