Autism Supplement. Susan Catlett, Ph.D Gail Cheramie, Ph.D Cissy Coleman M.Ed. Vickie Mitchell, Ed.D. Susan J. Sheridan, Ed.D Region 4 Education Service Center. Important Historical Information.
Susan Catlett, Ph.D
Gail Cheramie, Ph.D
Cissy Coleman M.Ed.
Vickie Mitchell, Ed.D.
Susan J. Sheridan, Ed.D
Region 4 Education Service Center
But what if…
Definition (Rules-Guidance Table)
Daily schedules reflecting minimal unstructured time and active engagement in learning activities, for example: lunch, snack, and recess periods that provide flexibility within routines, adapt to individual skill levels, and assist with schedule changes, such as changes involving substitute teachers and pep rallies
Minimal unstructured time means that IEP goals and objectives are being addressed throughout the day and across settings
Student remains meaningfully engaged throughout the majority of the school day
It must begin the minute the student arrives and end the minute he/she leaves
Time increments should be small
Schedule is student specific vs. teacher or classroom specific
Increase in self-stimulatory behaviors?
Increase in off-task behaviors?
Increase in self-injurious or aggressive behaviors?
Problems noted during transition periods?
Regarding the environment:
General education classroom
Large group settings
RestroomDaily Schedules: Data Collection
In-home and community-based training or viable alternatives that assist the student with acquisition of social/behavioral skills, for example: strategies that facilitate maintenance and generalization of such skills from home to school, school to home, home to community, and school to community
Issues regarding generalization:
Consider: Support is being provided to the parent in terms of parent training.
Define (Rules-Guidance Table)
Positive behavior support strategies based on relevant information for Example:
antecedent manipulation, replacement behaviors, reinforcement strategies, and data-based decisions; and
a Behavior Intervention Plan developed from a Functional Behavioral Assessment that uses current data related to target behaviors and addresses behavioral programming across home, school, and community-based settings
PBS involves research-based strategies designed to enhance the capacity of schools to educate all students, especially students with challenging behaviors, by adopting a sustained, positive, preventative instructional approach to school-wide discipline and behavior management.
PBS involves the assessment and re-engineering of environments so that individuals with maladaptive behaviors:
experience reductions in these behaviors
increase in functional communicative alternative behaviors and
improve their social, personal, and professional quality of lives
Involves the procedures for increasing behaviors that are associated with ABA
Focuses on identifying the function of behaviors, and teaching replacement behaviors
g = Transition
§89.1055(g) Content of the IEP
For each student with a disability, beginning at age 16 (prior to the date on which a student turns 16 years of age) or younger, if determined appropriate by the ARD committee, the following issues must be considered in the development of the IEP, and if appropriate, integrated into the IEP...
9 areas to consider
Parent/family training and support provided by qualified personnel with experience in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), that, for example:
Define (Rules-Guidance Table)
Suitable staff-to-student ratio appropriate to identified activities and as needed to achieve social/behavioral progress based on the child’s developmental and learning level (acquisition, fluency, maintenance, generalization) that encourages work towards individual independence…for example:
adaptive behavior evaluation results (A);
behavioral accommodation needs across settings (B); and
transitions within the school day (C).
Beginning of learning process
Introduction of new skills and behaviors
Significant assistance provided
High rate of reinforcement necessary
Goal: To initially establish a desired response.
Brushing teeth occurs with prompts and reinforcers
Refers to rate at which a response occurs
Assistance begins to decrease
Reinforcement given only for demonstrating response within designated period of time
Goal: To establish a normative rate.
Brushing teeth occurs within three minutes and reinforcement is delivered
Goal: To achieve independence
Communication interventions, including language forms and functions that enhance effective communication across settings, For example: augmentative, incidental, and naturalistic teaching
Little empirical or conceptual research comparing them with each other
Social skills supportsand strategies based on social skills assessment/curriculum and provided across settings, For example: trained peer facilitators (e.g., circle of friends), video modeling, social stories, and role playing
willingness to do non-preferred things
concept of friendship
response to suggestions
reading, interpreting, & responding to social cues
appropriate communication with communication partner
environmental regulation skills
manners and listeningSocial Skills
Professional educator/staff support For example: training provided to personnel who work with the student to assure the correct implementation of techniques and strategies described in the IEP
Teaching strategies based on peer reviewed, [and/or] research-based practices for students with ASD, For example: those associated with discrete-trial training, visual supports, applied behavior analysis, structured learning, augmentative communication, or social skills training
It is increasingly evident that there is no single best-suited and universally effective method for all children and youth with ASD. The best programs appear to be those that incorporate a variety of objectively verified practices and that are designed to address and support the needs of individual students . . . (National Research Council, 2001; Olley, 1999)