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## Chapter 2 – Operational Amplifiers

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**Chapter 2 – Operational Amplifiers**Introduction http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/courses/engr311/Handouts/OpAmp-tutorial-1.ppt Textbook CD http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/designLab/InvertingAmplifierDesign.html**The OP-AMP Terminals**Symbol Power Supplies**_**i(-) Inverting RO A vid Output Ri vO = Advid Noninverting i(+) + -VS The Ideal OP-AMP Open-loop gain Exercise 2.2**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**The Inverting Configuration Closed-Loop Gain Virtual Short-Circuit Virtual Ground Negative and Positive Feedback The inverting closed-loop configuration.**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**The Closed-Loop Gain - Analysis of the inverting configuration**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**Effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**Exercise 2.1**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**Input and Output Resistances**Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal OP-AMPS**Exercise 2.2**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**With General Impedances Z2 Z1**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Integrator**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**PSpice Simulation Tips**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Differentiator Z2 = R Z1 = 1/sC**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Weighted Summer**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Non-Inverting Configuration vi**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Voltage Follower**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Difference Amplifier A difference amplifier.**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Difference Amplifier Applications of superposition to the analysis of the current circuit of Fig.. 2.21.**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Difference Amplifier – Input Resistances Finding the input resistance of the difference amplifier.**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**The Difference Amplifier – Common-Mode and Differential Components of the input signal Representation of the common-mode and differential components of the input signal to a difference amplifier. Note that v1 = vCM - vd/2 and v2 = vCM + vd/2.**Other Applications of the Inverting Configuration**Instrumentation Amplifier (a) A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier. (b) Analysis of the circuit in (a) assuming ideal op-amps. (c) To make the gain variable, R1 is implemented as the series combination of a fixed resister R1fand a variable resistor R1v. Resistor R1fensures that the maximum available gain is limited.**Effect Of Finite Open-Loop Gain and Bandwidth On Circuit**Performance Open-loop gain of a typical general-purpose internally compensated op amp. fb = 3-db or break frequency ft = unity gain bandwidth**(a) Unity-gain follower. (b) Input step waveform. (c)**Linearly rising output waveform obtained when the amplifier is slew-rate limited. (d) Exponentially rising output waveform obtained when V is sufficiently small so that the initial slope (wtV) is smaller then or equal to SR.**Effect of slew-rate limiting on output sinusoidal waveforms.**