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Why observe M dwarfs?. Due to current technical limits (~ 1m/s --- ), the reflex velocities of earth-mass planets in the HZ are only observable around mid- to late-M dwarf stars. M6V. M9V. M3V. M1V. Why observe in the near-IR?. GL 406 M6V. (IRTF/SpeX R~2000).

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Why observe m dwarfs
Why observe M dwarfs?

Due to current technical limits

(~ 1m/s ---), the reflex velocities

of earth-mass planets in the HZ

are only observable around

mid- to late-M dwarf stars

M6V

M9V

M3V

M1V


Why observe in the near ir
Why observe in the near-IR?

GL 406 M6V

(IRTF/SpeX R~2000)

Radial velocity precision, v = c Q-1 Ne-0.5

Bouchy et al. (2001)

Although M dwarfs are much brighter in

the NIR than the optical (more photo-

electrons Ne), simulations for vmust

include the measurable amount of

Doppler Information (Q) in optical and

NIR spectra

PRVS

Y+J+H


Simulations q v vs v sin i 8 m
Simulations: Q,v vs v sini (8 m)

R=70,000

S/N=300

M3V

M6V

R=70,000

S/N=300

M9V

R=70,000

S/N=300


Theory obs comparison
Theory/Obs Comparison

  • From high R data, M dwarf theoretical

    models (Peter Hauschildt) underestimate

    the Doppler Information (Q) in the NIR

    by factors > 2

  • Considering models + data there is

    a clear advantage to observing mid-

    late-M dwarfs in NIR (Y+J+H bands,

    photon-limited) over the optical

GL 406 (Wolf 359) M6V

J-band, R=20,000 Keck/NIRSPEC

(McLean et al. 2007)

Qmodel ~ 800

Qdata ~ 1600


What is the intrinsic rv jitter of m dwarfs
What is the intrinsic RV jitter of M dwarfs?

Keck optical sample, Wright et al. (2005)

  • Causes of intrinsic jitter

    • Rotation + star spots/surface features

    • Activity/variability

    • Turbulence and pulsation

  • Results from optical RV surveys

    • For non-active M dwarfs,

      average intrinsic jitter ~ 4 m/s

    • No significant trend with SpT

  • Expectations for NIR RV surveys

    • Higher v sin i for late-M dwarfs

    • But 2 x better star spot contrast in NIR

      means intrinsic jitter likely < 4 m/s

      for non-active M dwarfs

F stars

G & K stars

M stars


Technical challenges of rv in the nir
Technical challenges of RV in the NIR

  • Simultaneous wavelength fiducial covering NIR is required

    for high precision RV spectroscopy

    • No suitable gas/gases for a NIR absorption cell found

    • Use simultaneously exposed arcs (Th-Ar, Kr, Ne, Xe) and ultra-stable spectrograph

      • ~ 300 bright lines to monitor drift during observing (using super exposures

        and sub-array reads of arc lines)

      • ~ 1000 lines for PSF and wavelength calibration (daytime)

    • Use of a laser comb possible following R&D

  • Significant telluric contamination in the NIR

    • Mask out  30 km/s around telluric features deeper than 2%

    • At R=70,000 (14,000 ft, 2 mm PWV, 1.2 air-mass) this leaves 87% of Y,

      34% of J, and 58% of H

    • Simulations indicate resulting ‘telluric jitter’ ~ 0.5 m/s

  • PRVS ‘Pathfinder’ instrument being used at Penn State

    supports this modeling (see Pathfinder poster below)


Realistic prvs simulations
Realistic PRVS Simulations

M6V

Teff = 2800 K

Log g = 5

v sin i = 0 km/s

Model

Telluric

OH


Fourier analysis
Fourier Analysis

FT (f/)

F()

  • Doppler info of spectrum

  • F() related to f/.

  • FT (f/) = k f(k) where

  • spatial freq k = 2/

  • Plot k f(k) vs k for M6V

  • and v sin i = 0 km/s

  • Over-plot FT (Gaussian PSF)

  • for R=20k, 50k, 70k, 100k

  • RESULT:

  • optimum R  70,000

V

Y

R=70,000

J

H

K



Prvs sensitivity niche
PRVS SENSITIVITY NICHE

S/N break-even point between optical

and NIR surveys is early- to mid-M SpT

OPTICAL RV

(8 m)

PRVS

NIR RV

Mean intrinsic RV jitter ~ 4 m/s measured in optical

Improved intrinsic RV jitter in NIR?

M9V

M6V

G2V

M3V

M1V


Habitable zone is more accessible around m dwarfs when observed in the nir
Habitable zone is more accessible around M dwarfswhen observed in the NIR

1.0 m/s

0.1 m/s

Required RV precision

to detect 1 ME

Kasting et al. (1995)

M Star Planet Habitability: Special issue of Astrobiology (February 2007),

including review by Tarter et al.