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Welcome to ENVR 242. Vertebrate Biology & Ecology. Instructor: Annette Dehalt PPT Presentations: Ted Davis & Annette Dehalt. Biological Diversity. What is “biodiversity”? The value of biodiversity The loss of biodiversity B.C. Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity.

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Welcome to envr 242

Welcome to ENVR 242

Vertebrate Biology & Ecology

Instructor: Annette Dehalt

PPT Presentations: Ted Davis & Annette Dehalt


Welcome to envr 242

Biological Diversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Biodiversity biological diversity
Biodiversity (biological diversity)

“…the totality of hereditary variation in life forms, across all levels of biological organization, from genes and chromosomes within individual species to the array of species themselves and finally, at the highest level, the living communities of ecosystems such as forests and lakes.” – E. O. Wilson (1994:359)


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Biodiversity is NOT just

species diversity!

Species diversity is NOT just number of species!

  • Species diversity =

  • Species richness + relative abundance

  • Species richness = number of species

  • Relative abundance = proportion of each species in the community



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Coastal Ecosystem Diversity

Mountains

Forest

Ocean


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Diverse components of biodiversity (genes…ecosystems) are structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:


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How the parts are organized structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

The parts

How the parts function


Welcome to envr 242

Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Value of biodiversity
Value of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.


Value of biodiversity1
Value of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.

Direct value – products directly consumed by people.


Value of biodiversity2
Value of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.

Direct value – products directly consumed by people.

Indirect value – benefits that do not involve the consumption of resources.


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Indirect value: recreation and education structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:


Welcome to envr 242

Indirect value: ecosystem services structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:


Ecosystem services
Ecosystem services structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity::

The conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain life, including human life.


Ecosystem services1
Ecosystem services structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

  • production of ecosystem goods

  • purification of air and water

  • mitigation of floods and droughts

  • decomposition of wastes

  • renewal of soil and soil fertility

  • crop pollination

  • control of agricultural pests

  • seed dispersal

  • nutrient transport

  • climate stabilization


Ecosystem services2
Ecosystem services structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Global GNP = $18 trillion

Ecosystem services: $33 trillion/year


Catskill watershed
Catskill watershed structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

$6-$8 billion for a new water treatment plant


Catskill watershed1
Catskill watershed structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

$1.5 billion to buy land and introduce water protection measures


Welcome to envr 242

Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


The loss of biodiversity
The loss of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

Because of human activities, extinction rates are 100X – 1000X greater than the background extinction rate.


Percent of described species globally threatened iucn 2011
Percent of Described Species Globally Threatened structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:(IUCN 2011)

Fishes insuff. data

Amphibians 41%

Reptiles insuff. data

Birds 13%

Mammals 25%

Vertebrates ~10-20%


The loss of biodiversity1
The loss of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

  • The threats to biodiversity are driven by the growth and size of the human population, the technologies we use, and the amount of natural resources we consume.

Human population growth


The loss of biodiversity2
The loss of biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

  • The threats to biodiversity are driven by the growth and size of the human population, the technologies we use, and the amount of natural resources we consume.

  • Many of the threats to biodiversity are synergistic.

  • 4. What is bad for biodiversity is bad for humans.


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Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Bc biodiversity
BC Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

The most biologically diverse province or territory in Canada


Bc biodiversity1
BC Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

3169 native vascular plants

781 species of mosses

~1600 species of lichens

~520 species of sea weeds

~10,000 species of fungi

~35,000 species of Invertebrates (mostly insects)


Bc biodiversity2
BC Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

1257 species of vertebrates

504 species of fish

22 species of amphibians

22 species of reptiles

529 species of birds

180 species of mammals


Bc biodiversity 2011
BC Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity: (2011)


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Taxonomy structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

corn

  • Common names

  • Not standardized

  • Don’t indicate relationships

bear

robin


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Scientific names structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Canis lupus

(Grey Wolf)

Peromyscus maniculatus

(Deer Mouse)


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Scientific names structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Canis lupus (Grey Wolf)

Canis latrans

(Coyote)

Canis mesomelas

(Black-backed Jackal)

Canis dingo (Dingo)


Alces alces moose
Alces alces structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity: (Moose)


Welcome to envr 242

Scientific names structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Canis lupus

Canis Lupus

Grey wolf

canis lupus

Canis lupus


Hierarchical classification

Panthera structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

pardus

Species

Panthera

Genus

Felidae

Family

Carnivora

Order

Mammalia

Class

Chordata

Phylum

Animalia

Kingdom

Eukarya

Domain

Hierarchical classification


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ZOOLOGICAL BOTANICAL structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Kingdom Kingdom

Phylum Division (-phyta)

Subphylum Subdivision (-phytina)

Superclass

Class Class (-opsida)

Subclass Subclass (-idae)

Order Order (-ales)

Suborder Suborder (-ineae)

Superfamily (-oidea)

Family (-idae) Family (-aceae)

Subfamily (-inae) Subfamily (-oideae) Tribe (-eae)

Genus Genus

species species


Envr 242 taxonomy
ENVR 242 Taxonomy structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates)

(Subphylum Cephalochordata-lancelets: 0 in BC)

Subphylum Vertebrata

Superclass Agnatha – jawless fishes

Class Myxini (hagfish)

Class Petromyzontida (lampreys)

Superclass Gnathostomata – jawed vert’s

Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous fishes

Class Actinopterygii – ray-finned fishes

(Class Sarcopterygii – lobe-finned fishes: 0 in BC)

Class Amphibia - amphibians

Class Reptilia - reptiles

Class Aves - birds

Class Mammalia – mammals


Welcome to envr 242

Biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Threats to biodiversity
Threats to biodiversity structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:

  • Climate change

  • Habitat destruction

  • Habitat fragmentation

  • Habitat degradation

  • Overexploitation

  • Introduction of exotic species

  • Disease

  • (details to follow)