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Rationale for Inclusion. Legal Mandates Head Start Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Americans with Disabilities Act. Benefits for children with disabilities Benefits for normally developing children Benefits for families Family choice Ethical/value-based arguments.

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slide1

Rationale for Inclusion

  • Legal Mandates
    • Head Start
    • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    • Americans with Disabilities Act

Benefits for children with disabilities

Benefits for normally developing children

Benefits for families

Family choice

Ethical/value-based arguments

slide2

Promoting Inclusion & Normalization

  • Strong support for preschool inclusion comes from four sources
  • - legislation - moral arguments
  • -rational arguments - research
  • Inclusion practices vary as a function of state practices & child characteristics
  • Under current conditions, inclusion sometimes competes with other important values
    • high-quality services
    • specialized services
    • family-centered practices
slide3

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education, Data Analysis System (DANS). (November 1999) Table AB7. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data [IDEA Part B Child Count (1998-99)] on the World Wide Web: http://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc.html#partbLRE

slide4

Percentage of Children 3 Through 5 Served in Different

Educational Environments

(97-98 School Year)

  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education, Data Analysis System (DANS). (November 1999) Table AB3. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data [IDEA Part B Child Count (1998-99)] on the World Wide Web: http://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc.html#partbLRE
slide5

Percentage of Infants and Toddlers Served Under Part C in Different Early Intervention Settings

(as reported on December 1, 1997)

  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education, Data Analysis System (DANS). (November 1999) Table AH7. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from Data Tablesfor OSEP State Reported Data [IDEA Part B Child Count (1998-99)] on the World Wide Web: http://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc.html#partbLRE
slide6

Comparison of Educational Environments for Children 3 Through 5 Receiving Special Education: Most Inclusive and Least Inclusive States(1997-98 School Year)

Separate Facility

Combination of Regular/Pull-out

Combination of Regular/Pull-out

2.9%

Separate

Classroom

5.46%

10.09%

9.48%

Separate Facility

16.74%

Separate Classroom

48.34%

Regular

Class

82.16%

Regular Class

29.83%

8 states with the highest percentage of 3 through 5 served in regular settings

8 states with the lowest percentage of 3 through 5 served in regular settings.

  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education, Data Analysis System (DANS). (November 1999) Table AB3. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data [IDEA Part B Child Count (1998-99)] on the World Wide Web: http://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc.html#partbLRE
slide9

Many children are in preschool programs of inadequate quality

Only a few children have

access to care of the highest

quality

slide10

Determinants and Outcomes of Quality in Integrated Preschool

Outcomes

for children

with

disabilities

Contextual Features

Program Features

Family Characteristics

Child

Characteristics

Outcomes of

Integration

Outcomes

for families

of children

with

disabilities

Outcomes

for others

slide11

Values that Sometimes

Compete with Inclusion

  • High-quality services
  • Specialized services
  • Family-centered practices
slide12

Tension Between Specialization and Normalization

High Specialization

Ideal

Typical

Low Normalization

High Normalization

Typical

Low Specialization

slide13

Inclusive Settings for Children with

Disabilities Can Pose Special

Challenges for Families

  • Most parents desire normalized settings for their children.
  • Many families feel a tension between specialization and normalization.
  • Normalization in one setting can lead to disruption in other settings.
  • Families often try to balance inclusive and specialized
  • experiences; the way this is accomplished varies considerably
  • across families.
  • Inclusion of children does not necessarily lead to inclusion of
  • parents.
slide14

Goal

Inclusion of children with disabilities in normalized settings that are of high quality, consistent with family preferences & capable of supporting each child’s unique learning needs

  • We must
  • Improve quality of community child care
  • revise regulations & funding options
  • build individual, program & community support for inclusion
  • create structures to support inclusion efforts
  • consider inclusion in the broader context of normalization
slide15

Proposed

Normalization Goal

  • To teach skills and provide supports that
  • Enable persons with disabilities and their families to live lives that are as normal as possible; and
  • Promote self-determination
slide16

What would it take to achieve this goal?

  • Improve the quality of community child care
  • Revise regulations and funding options
  • Build individual program and community support for inclusion
  • Create structures to support inclusive efforts
  • Consider inclusion in the broader context of normalization
slide17

What do we know about Quality?

  • Long history of effects of parenting style, poverty, home environments
  • 20 yrs of research showing quality matters
  • Higher quality = better outcomes
  • Quality affects cognitive, language, social
  • Effects of quality persist
  • Quality matters for all children, but is especially important for poor children and children of mothers with low education
slide18

Characteristics of High-Quality Programs

  • High staff-child ratio
  • Small group size
  • Adequate staff education and training
  • Low staff turnover
  • Curriculum emphasizing active learning
  • Emotionally warm and caring relationships among teachers and children
  • Parent support and involvement
slide19

How Might Early Intervention Be

Different if Normalization

Became the Primary Theme?

  • Child assessment might focus on skills needed
  • to function or participate in family-identified routines and activities.
  • Assessmentmight include a focus on parental goals in various domains of family life.
  • Children might be taught skills in the context/settings in which parents feel they are most important.
slide20

How Might Early Intervention Be

Different if Normalization

Became the Primary Theme? (cont’d)

  • Inclusion in regular preschool might become part of a larger area of consideration for normalized experiences.
  • Family support might focus on helping families achieve what they feel is a normalized life for them.
  • Quality of life for families might become a critical indicator of the effectiveness of early intervention.
slide21

Some Goals for Early Intervention

  • Promote development in key domains
  • Build and support children’s social competence
  • Promote child engagement, independence & mastery
  • Provide and prepare for normalized life experiences
  • Support families
  • Prevent secondary consequences of disabilities
  • Promote quality of life for children and families
slide22

Typical Inclusion Goal

To ensure that children with disabilities are

fully included in regular classes.

slide23

References

  • Bailey, D. B., McWilliam, R. A., Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (1998). Inclusion in the context of competing values in early childhood education. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13, 27-47.
  • Buysse, V., & Bailey, D. B. (1993). Behavioral and developmental outcomes in young children with disabilities in integrated and segregated settings: A review of comparative studies. Journal of Special Education, 26, 434-461.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education, Data Analysis System (DANS). (November 1999) Tables AB3, AB7, AH7. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data [IDEA Part B Child Count (1998-99)] on the World Wide Web: http://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc.html#partbLRE