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TaK – What is Knowledge?. Changing your mind A . Write down one thing you used to believe* and now do not B . Write down one thing that you believe now and think that you will believe forever For A ., ask yourself – and write down: What made you believe it in the first place?

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TaK – What is Knowledge?

  • Changing your mind
  • A.Write down one thing you used to believe* and now do not
  • B.Write down one thing that you believe now and think that you will believe forever
  • For A., ask yourself – and write down:
    • What made you believe it in the first place?
    • How did you come to change your belief?
  • For B., ask yourself – and write down:
    • What made you believe this in the first place?
    • Is there anything you can imagine that would change your mind?
    • Discuss in pairs

*believe: to accept as true

tak what is knowledge

What is Knowledge?

    • A definition: Knowledge -
      • the body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time;
      • certain understanding (as opposed to opinion);

TaK – What is Knowledge?

tak what is knowledge1

Different kinds of Knowledge

A person with genuine knowledge of a subject does not merely have information about it, but understands how the various parts are related to one another to form a meaningful whole.

An analogy:

Information is to knowledge what bricks are to a building. While you cannot have a building without bricks, a building is more than just a heap of bricks

TaK – What is Knowledge?

tak what is knowledge2

Different kinds of Knowledge

  • Different personal characteristics and experiences affect what people know.
  • There are different levels of knowledge:
      • A superficial grasp
      • A good understanding
      • A complete mastery

TaK – What is Knowledge?

tak what is knowledge3

Different kinds of Knowledge

    • Knowing How (Skills) …
      • To swim
      • To dance
      • To solve maths problems
      • etc…
    • Knowing That …
      • It is cold
      • 2+2=4
      • Obama is US President
      • etc…

TaK – What is Knowledge?

tak what is knowledge4

Different kinds of Knowledge

TaK – What is Knowledge?

*Tacit: understood without being openly expressed

*Articulated: can be clearly expressed in words

tak what is knowledge5

Different kinds of Knowledge

Knowing in your IB Programme subjects

TaK – What is Knowledge?

(Other 5 Subject Groups?)

slide8

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Origins of Knowledge

observation

etc

thought

?’s

?’s

family

television

internet

?’s

“What is true?”

“What can I know?”

“What should I believe?”

“How can I be sure?”

books

intuition

etc

?’s

teachers

religion

friends

?’s

dreams

Definitions:

True - conforming to reality or fact; not false

Know – to understand from experience; to apprehend clearly and with certainty

?’s

feelings

experience

slide9

TaK – What is Knowledge?

  • Knowledge is true belief that has been arrived at by a ‘reliable process’ (by observation, experiment, reasoning etc) . Not just ‘true for me’, but ‘true for all’
  • (Validity of the justification – ‘poor, unreliable justification’ or ‘excellent, reliable justification’ leading to ‘weaker’ or ‘stronger’ forms of knowledge)
  • Knowledge = justified, true belief

Belief-knowledge continuum

-10

|

Impossible

-5

|

Unlikely

0

|

Possible

+5

|

Probable

+10

|

Certain

Belief

Knowledge

Doubt

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TaK – What is Knowledge?

Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492

Human beings are descended from apes

Murder is wrong

Aliens have visited earth at some time in its history

All metals expand when heated

Human beings have an immortal soul

If A is bigger than B and B is bigger than C, then A is bigger than C

Belief-knowledge continuum

-10

|

Impossible

-5

|

Unlikely

0

|

Possible

+5

|

Probable

+10

|

Certain

Belief

Knowledge

Doubt

tak what is knowledge6

Two approaches:

Reason (Rationalism): Logic, Reasoning,

Sitting and Thinking

Perception (Empiricism): Experience, Observation, Going and Looking

“What is true?”

“What can I know?”

“What should I believe?”

“How can I be sure?”

Definitions:

True - conforming to reality or fact; not false

Know – to understand from experience; to apprehend clearly and with certainty

TaK – What is Knowledge?

slide12

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Areas of Knowledge

Origins of Knowledge

observation

etc

Mathematics

thought

?’s

Science

?’s

family

Knowledge

Trials

television

Social Science

internet

“What is true?”

“What can I know?”

“What should I believe?”

“How can I be sure?”

?’s

books

History

intuition

etc

?’s

teachers

Arts

religion

friends

?’s

Ethics

feelings

?

?’s

experience

slide13

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Theory of Knowledge Diagram

Mathematics

Ways of Knowing

Natural

Sciences

Sense

Perception

Ethics

Reason

Knower(s)

Emotion

Areas of Knowledge

Human

Sciences

Language

Arts

History

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TaK – What is Knowledge?

Open-

mindedness

*Scepticism

*Scepticism: the doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible, either in a particular domain or in general.

slide15

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Scepticism

Open-

mindedness

Will believe almost anything…

slide17

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Open-

mindedness

Scepticism

Will believe almost nothing…

slide19

TaK – What is Knowledge?

Good

Judgement

Open-

mindedness

Scepticism

  • We need to find a balance between being open to new ideas that challenge our ways of thinking,
  • while keeping in mind than human beings are *credulous animals who are sometimes willing to believe strange things on the basis of little evidence

*credulous: willing to believe or trust too readily,

especially. without proper or adequate evidence