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Advertising & Promotion Research Dr. Close. Role of Research. Defined as: “ the planning, collecting, and analyzing information to improve marketing decisions. ” A decision Support System (DSS) Keep isolated marketing managers in touch with markets. What ’ s hot? What ’ s not?

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Advertising & Promotion Research

Dr. Close

Role of research
Role of Research

  • Defined as:

    • “the planning, collecting, and analyzing information to improve marketing decisions.”

  • A decision Support System (DSS)

  • Keep isolated marketing managers in touch with markets.

  • What’s hot? What’s not?

  • DSS: Interactive, flexible, discovery-oriented & accessible

  • Create customer profiles via database marketing

  • Used to assist in determining market segments

  • Plays a key role in helping creatives understand the audience

  • Used to make go/no go ad decisions & when to pull ads

  • Used to evaluate agency performance

  • I will review research steps in general first

  • Then I will cover developmental and copy testing (slightly different from traditional marketing research)

Research steps
Research Steps

  • Identify the problems (or opportunity)

    • Is the most difficult and important (Cingular wireless: product failures: cast about reasons: lack of image; $300 million BBDO)

    • Book: often outside specialists must understand situation.

    • Budget constraints an issue.

Step 2 research methods
Step 2: Research Methods

2. Plan Research Design & Collect Data

  • Quick and cost effective (eliminates need)

  • Secondary data (Vans: law; skatepark)

    • Information already collected and or published

    • Study information already available

  • End: decide if information is still needed

  • If so, conduct a new, original (primary) research study

  • Market research is what I do almost every day!

Research methods cont
Research Methods, cont.

Plan to gather data: surveys

2b. If primary data, have to collect data yourself

  • Questioning: survey (Scales)

    • Set of questions to collect information directly from subjects (open or closed ended)

    • Self administer or in person (at events, malls)

    • Problem: low response rates 10% is good, 36% diss)

    • Problem (from low response): representative

    • Online surveys


Marketing Research Process

Plan to gather data: novel methods

2b. Depth interviews & Focus Groups

  • Brainstorming session with 6 to 12 customers

  • May involve projective techniques

    • Allow consumers to project thoughts & feelings onto neutral stimuli

  • May also use association tests

    • Ask consumers to express thoughts or feelings after hearing a brand or seeing a logo

An interesting focus group
An Interesting Focus Group

I like the Green Bottle- it speaks to me. It’s not easy being green.

I think the bottle should be more yellow.

Research methods cont1
Research Methods, cont.

Plan to gather data: experiments

2b. Data

  • Experimenting

    • Two similar groups

      • Differ on one item of importance

      • Hold all else constant

    • Advantage: causation (Eckerd; 20 stores; POP; Atkins death)

    • Disadvantage: naturalism (is it so fake?) LeSportsac vs K-Mart

    • Look on the back of a prescription drug print ad….that is an experiment

Research steps1
Research Steps

3. Analyze the data (not just interesting)

  • Run cross-tabs

  • Hypothesis testing

  • Association Measures

  • Regression Analysis

  • Structural Equation Models

Research steps2
Research Steps

4. Clean/Interpret data

  • Solve with statistics

  • Issues:

    • Reliability: consistency (same result in repeated trials; scale for weight)

    • Validity: measure what you intend to (accurate standardized tests

    • Statistical software assists you

Make sure your data has
Make sure your data has:

  • Reliability: The research method produces consistent findings over time

  • Validity: The information generated is relevant to the research questions being investigated

  • Trustworthiness: Usually applied to qualitative data; does the data seem to make sense?

  • Meaningfulness: An assessment of limitations of the data

Spss sas lisrel amos
SPSS, SAS, Lisrel, Amos

Research steps3
Research Steps

5.Prepare/Present Report or Manuscript

  • Solve objectives clearly

  • Search for the “better question” (ask about food quality in dining hall; everyone talks about price or location)

  • Tailor to audience (executive or expert scholars

    6.Follow up

  • How could your improve?

  • Was a decision made based on your study?

  • Build a relationship

Account planning versus developmental advertising research
Account Planning versus Developmental Advertising Research

Planning differs from traditional research in 3 ways:

And developmental advertising promotion research methods may differ from the research steps
And, Developmental Advertising & Promotion Research Methods May Differ from the Research Steps

It is:

  • Used to assist in determining market segments

  • Plays a key role in helping creatives understand the audience

  • Used to make go/no go ad decisions & when to pull ads

  • Used to evaluate agency performance

Developmental advertising research gives
Developmental Advertising Research gives:

  • Idea Generation. An agency often invents new, meaningful ways of presenting a brand to a target audience

  • Concept Testing seeks feedback designed to screen quality of new ideas or concepts

  • Audience Definition. Once a target segment have been identified, planning proceeds with developing a meaningful message

  • Audience Profiling. Creatives need to know as much as they can about the people to whom their ads will speak

Developmental advertising research methods
Developmental Advertising Research Methods

Besides the traditional research methods discussed, developmental ad methods include:

  • Projective Techniques

  • Association Tests

  • Dialogue Balloons

  • Story Construction

  • Sentence & picture completion

  • Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)

Developmental advertising research methods con t
Developmental Advertising Research Methods (con’t)

More methods include

  • Field Work (A personal favorite in my event marketing research)

    • Embedded consumption: Learn from the experiences of the consumer through direct observation

    • Creative brief: outline of essential creative ideas (will focus on this in the creative unit)

Different from copy research
Different from Copy Research

  • Research on the actual ads

  • Used to judge the ads against a standard

  • Sometimes a source of agency conflict

Motives expectations in copy research
Motives & Expectations in Copy Research

  • Account team wants assurance that the ad does what it is supposed to

  • Client wants to see how well an ad scores against average commercial of its type

  • Creativesoften don’t like message testing because it creates a report card & “artists” resent getting report cards from businesses

  • Message-testing research can yield important data that management can use to determine the suitability of an ad

Evaluative criteria in copy research
Evaluative Criteria in Copy Research

  • “Getting It”

    • Do consumers understand the ad?

  • Knowledge

    • Tests of recall & recognition

  • Attitude change

    • Determine where a brand stands

  • Feelings & emotions

  • Physiological changes

    • Changes in eye movements or respiration

  • Behavioral intent

    • Do people say they will buy the product

  • Actual Behavior

    • Did people buy the product?

What sort of “feelings & emotions” do you think research would uncover for this ad?

Copy research methods
Copy Research Methods

  • Communication Tests

    • Are consumers getting the message?

  • Resonance Tests

    • To what extent does the ad ring true?

  • Thought Listings

    • Determine the thoughts that occur during exposure

  • Recall Tests

    • How much does the viewer remember from the message?

Copy research methods con t
Copy Research Methods (con’t)

  • Recognition Tests

    • Do people remember seeing an ad or sponsor?

  • Attitude Change Studies

    • Measure attitudes before & after exposure

  • Frame by Frame tests

    • Tracks emotional responses within an ad

  • Physiological Tests

    • Eye tracking, psychogalvanometer, voice response analysis

Copy research methods con t1
Copy Research Methods (con’t)

  • Pilot Testing

    • Split cable, split run, split list

  • Direct Response

    • Track consumer inquiries or direct responses

  • Single Source Data

    • Use UPC product codes to track behavior from the TV to the checkout counter

Another thought on testing
Another thought on testing

  • No single method is perfect

  • Researchers are employing more naturalistic methods to understand how people use media (& products)

Audience definition is an important part of the advertising/promotion research process. Any ideas on the audience for this ad?