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Putting Error Correction into Proper Perspective. Georgette Ioup Department of English University of New Orleans. Changing Theories of Language teaching. Stage 1 : Grammar Translation Stage 2: Audio Lingual Method (ALM) Stage 3: a. Communicative Competence (W. Rivers, 1968)

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putting error correction into proper perspective

Putting Error Correction into Proper Perspective

Georgette Ioup

Department of English

University of New Orleans

changing theories of language teaching
Changing Theories of Language teaching
  • Stage 1: Grammar Translation
  • Stage 2: Audio Lingual Method (ALM)
  • Stage 3: a.Communicative Competence

(W. Rivers, 1968)

b. L1 Acq. = L2 Acq.

(Dulay & Burt, 1974)

krashen s monitor model
Five Hypotheses

Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis

Natural Order Hypothesis

Monitor Hypothesis

Input Hypothesis

Affective Filter Hypothesis

Krashen’s Monitor Model
input hypothesis
Relates to Acquisition only.

We acquire by receiving Comprehensible input – input that is a little beyond our current level.

Current Level – i

Comprehensible Input - i + 1

Input Hypothesis
critical responses to krashen s theory
Higgs & Clifford, 1982

A. Terminal 2s:

Street learners with uncorrected errors

B. Advocates “accuracy first’

(See also, Valette, 1991)

Critical Responses to Krashen’s Theory
critical responses to krashen s theory7
White, 1987

Certain types of errors need rule instruction.

L1 French – L2 English

1. Mary studied the lesson carefully

2. Carefully Mary studied the lesson

3. *Mary studied carefully the lesson

Critical Responses to Krashen’s Theory
critical responses to krashen s theory8
Long, 1991

Focus on Form, not Focus on Forms

Focus on Forms: Teaching isolated rules

Focus on Form: teaching rules in context

Critical Responses to Krashen’s Theory
critical responses to krashen s theory9
Ellis, 1990

Forms that contribute little to communication tend to be ignored. They need attention.

Critical Responses to Krashen’s Theory
critical responses to krashen s theory10
Schmidt, 1994

Must notice the gap.

When there is a discrepancy between a TL form and an IL form, adults won’t notice it unless attention is drawn to it.

Critical Responses to Krashen’s Theory
in support of krashen s theory
VanPatten, 1988

No evidence that “terminal learners are terminal.”

Early focus on grammar will inhibit developing fluency.

In Support of Krashen’s Theory
in support of krashen s theory12
Schwartz, 1993

LAD can only accept natural input

Includes syntactic rules of Universal Grammar

Excludes morphology and lexicon

These two can be learned formally.

In Support of Krashen’s Theory
in support of krashen s theory13
Paradis, 1994

Explicit Knowledge -> Declarative Memory

Consciously accessible knowledge

Facts and Concepts

Ex: Formal knowledge of grammar rules

In Support of Krashen’s Theory
in support of krashen s theory14
Paradis, 1994

Implicit Knowledge -> Procedural Memory

Information derived unconsciously

Skills and Processes

Ex: Natural language acquisition

In Support of Krashen’s Theory
in support of krashen s theory15
Paradis, 1994

Declarative memory cannot translate into procedural memory.

Each uses a different part of the brain.

In Support of Krashen’s Theory
sounding alarms
The American Scene

Valette, 1991, Modern Language Journal

The level of foreign language proficiency has deteriorated in the last 25 years. The median proficiency score for foreign language majors is now probably no higher than 1+.

Two causes: “contact with inaccurate models and the acceptance (or non-correction) of inaccurate speech production.”

Sounding Alarms
sounding alarms17
The British Scene

Mitchell, 2000, Applied Linguistics

“Grenfell (1999) has documented current disillusionment and uncertainty among the MFL professional community in England with the present National Curriculum/GCSE framework.”

“…despite the focus on communication, a disappointing proportion of pupils are making the transition to creative control of the TL system.”

Sounding Alarms
research comparing implicit and explicit language teaching
Scott, 1989

Explicit condition performed better

Alenan, 1995

The groups who received rules performed better

Robinson, 1995

Instructed groups better on easy rules

VanPatten & Oikkenon, 1996

Explicit rule group did worse

Conflicting results could be due to monitoring

Research Comparing Implicit and Explicit Language Teaching
research on error correction in writing
It is effective – improves writing proficiency

Cardell & Carno (1982)

It gives no advantage over no correction

Fathman & Walley (1990)

It is ineffective – doesn’t improve writing proficiency

Kepner (1991)

Semke (1984)

It impedes proficiency development

Sheppard (1992)

Research on Error Correction in Writing
research on error correction in writing20
Truscott, 1996

A. Agrees with Krashen and Schwartz

According to learning theory, structures learned through error correction can’t become part of the internal grammar.

B. Advocates an end to grammar correction in writing

It is ineffective and harmful.

Research on Error Correction in Writing
research on error correction in writing21
Ferris (1999)

*Argues for a role for grammar correction.

*Claims studies are inclusive.

*Truscott’s radical stance is premature.

Research on Error Correction in Writing
weakness in focus on form research
My problem with focus-on-form studies:

They cover a short period of time.

Similar view expressed in

DeKeyser, 1977

Weakness in Focus-on-Form Research
two questions
Can formal instruction help, if formal learning cannot become part of the acquired grammar?

Why might it take a long time for the formal learning to become effective?

Two Questions
answer to question 1 can instruction help
Paradis (1994), DeKeyser (2002), Hulstijn (2002)

Explicit Knowledge -> Declarative Memory

Consciously accessible knowledge

Facts and Concepts

Ex: Formal knowledge of grammar rules

Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
answer to question 1 can instruction help25
Paradis (1994), DeKeyser (2002), Hulstijn (2002)

Implicit Knowledge -> Procedural Memory

Information derived unconsciously

Skills and Processes

Ex: Natural language acquisition

Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
answer to question 1 can instruction help26
Paradis (1994), DeKeyser (2002), Hulstijn (2002)

Declarative memory cannot translate into procedural memory.

Each uses a different part of the brain.

Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
answer to question 1 can instruction help27
Anderson (1995), DeKeyser (2002), Hulstijn (2002),

Paradis (1994)

Each time one uses a metalinguistic declarative rule,

One simultaneously builds unconscious, implicit procedural knowledge.

Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
answer to question 1 can instruction help28
Hulstijn, 2002

Metalinguistic knowledge doesn’t actually transform into implicit knowledge.

An implicit network that is separate from and in addition tothe explicit system is independently constructed.

Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
answer to question 2 why might it take a long time
McLaughlin (1990), DeKeyser (2001)

Complex skills start as controlled processes. Given:

* Time

* Attention

They become automatic routines.

It is practice which accomplishes this.

Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
answer to question 2 why might it take a long time30
Shriffrin & Schneider, 1986

The development of automaticity for generalized skills depends on high levels of practice.

McLaughlin, 1990

“A skill must be practiced again and again and again, until no attention is required for performance.”

Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
answer to question 2 why might it take a long time31
Anderson, 1995

A second factor is important for automaticity – feedback.

Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
my study
Jenny

Immigrated to the U.S. at age 10

Mainstreamed into regular classes, no ESL

Entered university at age 19

Many fossilized grammar errors

Required to take ESL classes

Needed 7 semesters plus one summer tutoring to destabilize her errors

I argue that rule isolation and error correction destabilized her fossilized structures

My Study
type of instruction given
Some formal rule presentation

Consistent feedback on errors in written work

Revision with error correction required

Type of Instruction Given
persistent errors
Because of + S

“Because of my father’s restaurant short of hand.”

Make + Infinitive

“made the car to go in reverse”

Finally eradicated at exit level

Persistent Errors
conclusion
Focus-on-form combined with abundant contextualized practice and feedback can aid a communicative learning approach.Conclusion