Putting Error Correction into Proper Perspective. Georgette Ioup Department of English University of New Orleans. Changing Theories of Language teaching. Stage 1 : Grammar Translation Stage 2: Audio Lingual Method (ALM) Stage 3: a. Communicative Competence (W. Rivers, 1968)
Department of English
University of New Orleans
(W. Rivers, 1968)
b. L1 Acq. = L2 Acq.
(Dulay & Burt, 1974)
Valette, 1991, Modern Language Journal
The level of foreign language proficiency has deteriorated in the last 25 years. The median proficiency score for foreign language majors is now probably no higher than 1+.
Two causes: “contact with inaccurate models and the acceptance (or non-correction) of inaccurate speech production.”Sounding Alarms
Mitchell, 2000, Applied Linguistics
“Grenfell (1999) has documented current disillusionment and uncertainty among the MFL professional community in England with the present National Curriculum/GCSE framework.”
“…despite the focus on communication, a disappointing proportion of pupils are making the transition to creative control of the TL system.”Sounding Alarms
Explicit condition performed better
The groups who received rules performed better
Instructed groups better on easy rules
VanPatten & Oikkenon, 1996
Explicit rule group did worse
Conflicting results could be due to monitoringResearch Comparing Implicit and Explicit Language Teaching
Why might it take a long time for the formal learning to become effective?Two Questions
Each time one uses a metalinguistic declarative rule,
One simultaneously builds unconscious, implicit procedural knowledge.Answer to Question 1Can instruction help?
Complex skills start as controlled processes. Given:
They become automatic routines.
It is practice which accomplishes this.Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
The development of automaticity for generalized skills depends on high levels of practice.
“A skill must be practiced again and again and again, until no attention is required for performance.”Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
A second factor is important for automaticity – feedback.Answer to Question 2Why might it take a long time?
Immigrated to the U.S. at age 10
Mainstreamed into regular classes, no ESL
Entered university at age 19
Many fossilized grammar errors
Required to take ESL classes
Needed 7 semesters plus one summer tutoring to destabilize her errors
I argue that rule isolation and error correction destabilized her fossilized structuresMy Study
Figure 1. T-unit analyses of 200-word samples at 3 different levels.
Figure 2. Mean percent of error-free T-units per sample at 3 different levels.