Postdoctoral Competencies. Marla Eby, Ph.D. Wayne Siegel, Ph.D., ABPP. Learning Objectives. Attendees will learn about the role of postdoctoral training in the sequence of training, and the common set of professional skills relevant to that training.
Learning Objectives Attendees will learn about the role of postdoctoral training in the sequence of training, and the common set of professional skills relevant to that training. Attendees will learn about the function of postdoctoral training as specialty training, and the role of research in that training. Attendees will learn about standards and accreditation as they pertain to postdoctoral training.
Acknowledgements – APPIC Postdoctoral Workgroup Marla Eby – Co Chair (APPIC, Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard) Wayne Siegel – Co Chair (APPIC, Minneapolis VA) Celiane Rey-Casserly (BEA, Harvard/Children’s Hospital) Teri Simoneau (CBCI, Presbyterian/St. Lukes, Denver) Kimberly Hill (Stanford U School of Medicine) Elizabeth McQuaid (Brown University) Doug Bodin (APPCN, Nationwide Children’s OH) Allison Aosved (VA Puget Sound) Steve McCutcheon (VA Puget Sound)
History of Postdoctoral Training Historically research position that were grant funded Wiki – “A postdoctoral fellow (colloquially, a "post-doc") is a temporary research position held by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies. Postdoctoral fellows commonly last for periods ranging between six months and five years, and have traditionally been dedicated purely to research.” 1978 - APPIC sponsored the first National Conference on Internship Training in Professional Psychology Agreement that dissertation should be completed before internship and internship be a 2-year process,1 predoctoral and 1 postdoctoral (Belar et al., 1989).
History - continued APPCN - clinical neuropsychology 1988 - grew out of the Midwest Neuropsychology Consortium, an organization of PD programs located in the Midwestern US. APPCN formally formed in 1992 Applied Houston Conference Guidelines (1998) Established unique criteria – Training and Education Guidelines in a defined Specialty Paper review of materials. No site visit. APIC - 1992 changed its name to include postdoctoral training (APPIC)
History - continued Accreditation Postdoctoral Guidelines and Principles (G&P) CoA first accredited programs in 1997 (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Menninger Clinic) Postdoc G&P was a slight modification of internship G&P Discuss criteria An advanced level in traditional practice areas and in specialty practice areas
History - continued Accreditation – continued G&P did not reflect the majority of postdoctoral training programs in the field many of which were research focused and grant funded – square peg in round hole Evolution of CoA accreditation Sense that the G&P did not fit well with postdoctoral training which resulted in the development of several Implementing Regulations Apparent benefits and consequences
History - continued VA Funding postdoc positions Coincided with possibility of accreditation Significant expansion with 9/11 and OEF/OIF A way to get focused/advanced or specialized training in particular areas Postdoctoral training within psychology is basically still in its infancy Little is known about the universe of PD programs outside of APPIC and APPCN.
Postdoctoral Training as Specialty Training Internships by definition are generalist, but Postdoctoral Training often emphasizes either a specialty or an emphasis area Completing a Postdoctoral Fellowship gives a marketplace advantage to emerging psychologists who can develop a specialty niche Specialty areas have more recently developed increased competency requirements
CRSPPP Taxonomy Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (APA) A specialty is a defined area of professional psychology practice with a distinctive configuration of competent services for specified problems and populations. Practice in a specialty requires advanced knowledge and skills acquired through an organized sequence of education and training. Postdoctoral programs typically offer a “major area of study” in specialties. A proficiency is a circumscribed activity in the practice of professional psychology. A postdoctoral program may provide a “focus” in that proficiency.
APA recognizes 12 specialties: clinical neuropsychology clinical health psychology psychoanalytic psychology school psychology clinical psychology clinical child psychology counseling psychology industrial-organizational psychology behavioral and cognitive psychology forensic psychology family psychology professional geropsychology.
APA recognizes 7 proficiencies: assessment and treatment of serious mental illness biofeedback applied psychophysiology personality assessment police psychology psychopharmacology sport psychology counseling psychology treatment of alcohol and other psychoactive use disorders .
Postdoctoral Clinical Training and Applied Research Training PD training stated as applied research training APPCN (1992) and accreditation (1997) opened up the door for clinically focused programs. Benefits of research training…… Boulder (scientist practitioner) Model (1949) ---urges clinicians to allow empirical research to influence their applied practice; while simultaneously, allowing their experiences during applied practice to shape their future research questions.
Research – continued The ability to understand, evaluate, and conduct empirical work sets psychologists apart from other MH disciplines With the increased emphasis on the economics of clinical work, retaining this emphasis may enhance the professional identity and range of career opportunities open to psychologists Conducting one’s own applied research (academia or academic health care center) Serving as a psychologist as an advanced treatment provider on RCTs Training other mental health providers in standardized methods of implementing interventions Evaluations of clinical programs Treatment effectiveness
Research - continued How do clinical training and research training coexist? What is the correct balance? How much research is too much? Accreditation – Domain B.2b …” the primary training method is supervised service delivery in direct contact with service recipients” (51% = primarily???) Neuro – Houston Conference – 25% State licensure laws vary significantly on if research activities are allowed and if clinical hours related to research count Postdoc selection – blended research and clinical program have applicants that compete with more research focused programs (similar to divides in the profession)
Research - continued The challenges we face as a profession are ever present in postdoctoral training. Is there a way for the continuum of research training in professional psychology to exist?
Postdoctoral training in the sequence of training APA Model licensure act (2006, 2010) APA recommends that legislation requires the equivalent of two full-time years of supervised, professional experience prior to obtaining the license. This training may be completed prior or subsequent to the granting of the doctoral degree. For applicants prepared for practice in the health services domain of psychology, one of those two years of supervised professional experience shall be a predoctoralinternship.
Postdoctoral training in the sequence of training Implications for postdoctoral training: More than two-thirds of states still require supervised postdoctoral experience for license, so psychology trainees still should obtain this. Postdoctoral training is increasingly becoming a way of establishing a professional niche or specialty. Postdoctoral programs can also serve to better integrate research training with clinical service. Postdoctoral programs may also emphasize professional development and professional identity.
Professional development A professional development seminar can serve several purposes: Can bring together postdoctoral fellows working in diverse specialty areas with a common goal Can enrich the scope of possibilities for both early and later career choices, increasing satisfaction and decreasing burnout Can increase the likelihood of a career that includes writing and research along with practice.
Professional Development Seminar Topics Licensure: Taking the EPPP and obtaining licensure Supervision: Selected topics include challenges for the new supervisor, handling diversity issues, the dual roles of the supervisor located in an institution Presentation skills: Giving a grand rounds, serving as a consultant in a case conference Forensic consultation skills: Serving as an expert witness Writing skills: Writing an article, book chapter, book Teaching skills: How to organize a syllabus, lead a discussion Transition to practice: How to organize a private practice in therapy and/or assessment, including issues of informed consent, ethics and money
Professional Identity Issues Leadership: Involve the fellow in administrative teams with increased responsibility Consultation: Involve the fellow as an emerging expert in the role of teaching and consulting to other disciplines Local and national roles: Discuss the importance of a career that includes a larger scope in shaping the profession, through activities in professional groups Advocacy: Discuss the role of the psychologist in shaping public policies
What is your philosophy of postdoc training? Clinical and/or vs. research training? A year of required supervision for licensure? A planned sequential program? Assumption basic competencies are met at doctoral and internship levels? Inherent benefits of the Boulder model What should be required and what should be optional? Should there be common competencies? Which ones? Competency benchmark document? How does postdoctoral training fit in with the profession’s covenant with the public, and what should the role of accreditation be?
Postdoctoral SoA Draft How its different Move from "professional psychology" to Health Service Psychology Programs that require substantial research activities must demonstrate how these research activities are directly related to HSP service delivery competencies and how the program ensures all residents attain the required HSP competencies at an advanced Level 1-Advanced Profession-Wide Competencies Required of All Residents Integration of Science and Practice (includes evidence-based practice) Diversity (includes issues of cultural and individual diversity relevant to advanced practice, as appropriate to population served and specialty area). Ethics (includes professional conduct, ethics and law, and other standards for providers of psychological services)
SoA - continued Level 2-Program-Specific, Area-of-Emphasis, or Proficiency Competencies The program requires all its residents to demonstrate professional Psychological competencies at an advanced level in those domains integral to achieving its aims Level 3-Specialty Competencies
SoA – Possibilities? Easier to get accredited? Applicable to a wider range of programs More programs will have oversight. Previously many PDs were not APPIC or accredited. Could help unify postdoc training nationally.
Postdoctoral Training in a National Context Continued concerns for postdoctoral training programs: How can programs systematically post positions? How can programs agree on a common application process with common selection dates? How can programs come together to share ideas? What is the potential role of various larger organizations (APA, APS, specialty organizations, APPIC) in improving postdoctoral training? What is the future of accreditation for postdoctoral training?