GENDER AUDIT OF EDUCATION: ETHIOPIA, KENYA, MALAWI AND UGANDA UNGEI Global Advisory Meeting, Paris, 12-13 November 2007 Aster Haregot, UNICEF ESARO
Introduction and Methodology • Implemented in three phases • Refining a Gender Audit Tool • A general review of progress in ESAR, 2000 and 2007 (or most current year) • Visits to Ethiopia, Malawi, Uganda – & Kenya discussions with stakeholders
Purpose and Objectives • To deepen the comprehensive situation analysis of education • To promote evidence based information for advocacy • To build capacity of UNICEF and counterpart offices • To inform corrective actions in programming • To utilize findings for purposes of donor appraisal, e.g. FTI
Country Summaries: Ethiopia • A SWAp, ESDP III (2005/06 – 2009/10) in place from 1997 • Been trying to build capacity in gender mainstreaming within the SWAp • Special emphasis is on primary education in rural and underserved areas, as well as the promotion of the education of girls • ESDP III candid in its assessment and objectively identifies the major challenges facing the sector. • Strategies for its implementation include a strong emphasis on gender issues in a decentralized framework. • Gender differences are manifest: Girls’ GER = 70.9%; boys’ = 87.3% for boys. Nevertheless, the current girls’ GER of 70.9% (2004/2005) is a significant improvement from 40% in 1999/2000. • The gender gap has also been reduced from 20% to 16.4%
Measures to encourage girls’ education • Draft booklet on Gender sensitive budgeting in place • 30% of places in the TTCs reserved for girls only. Remaining 70% is open for competition • A policy to encourage more female enrolment in tertiary education where female students are given special automatic credits • Female education forums established/strengthened to monitor and evaluate the implementation of policies, strategies and guidelines on girls’ education • Each ministry has a Gender and Equity Department
Country Summaries: Kenya • Policy framework (KESSP) anchored on 4 pillars: access & equity, retention, relevance, quality. • Notes gender inequality as a serious obstacle • Gender mainstreamed in the SWAp process as an Investment Program (of which there are 23) • Sector objectives and strategies have clear statements that reflect commitment to gender mainstreaming at all levels and in all spheres. • Affirmative action to increase women’s participation gaining political support • But challenges remain: girls trail boys in examinations; and, clear evidence of specialization asymmetries in primary, secondary & university level. • GER = 107.2 (Girls’=104.4%; boys’ =109.9% (2005). • NER = 83.2% (boys = 83.8%; girls = 82.6%). • Slightly more boys (68.2%) complete primary school than girls (66.5%). • Current primary to secondary transition of 61% not desegregated by gender.
Measures to encourage girls’ education • Gender an Investment Program in the SWAp (KESSP) • Re-entry is encouraged by re-admitting girls who would otherwise drop out of school due to unplanned pregnancies and other causes • At the university level, women are admitted at one point lower than men, a measure which has witnessed girls increase in enrolment at the university. • Special projects target improved girls’ access, retention and participation through provision of water and sanitation facilities.
Country Summaries: Malawi • The broad macro policy framework, MPRSP and MGDS, focuses on improving access and equity by emphasizing special needs and girls’ education. • Equity is also emphasized at secondary level, alongside improvement in quality, relevance and management services in secondary education. • Education policy framework taken too long to evolve into an effective SWAp (NESP) • Strategies to reduce drop out not had major impact, including the UNICEF supported schools. • Funding for education also increased by 26.9% in 2003/2004 FY • Major challenge remains: 80% of women are illiterate.
Measures to encourage girls’ education • Malawi has a strong readmission policy. Policy has been widely disseminated to the grassroots • Between January and June 300, over 326 pupils (285 girls, 41 boys) came back as a result of the policy. • Also, a new policy of constructing girls’ hostels in community day secondary schools.
Country Summaries: Uganda • Expected enactment of Education Bill, 2007 to provide for compulsory schooling • Major development in ’07 - implementation of USE/FSE • All policy documents prioritize gender issues in education • A National Gender Policy developed in 1997 has since been revised in 2007 • However, an implicit assumption that current challenge = sustaining the gender parity • Data does not show that there is equity in all aspects in these levels, though • Draft ed sector gender policy, not adequately aligned with the national gender policy – but it is still being discussed Figures based on the ESAPR (Uganda, 2006c). Cohort analysis shows that only 21% of girls and 24 of boys complete primary schooling (Uganda/UNICEF, 2005).
Measures to encourage girls’ education • Handbook for teachers on gender responsive teaching environment developed with the facilitation of UNICEF • Emphasis on deliberate interventions on sexual maturation and reproductive health education under PIASCY • Labs targeted in needy girls and predominantly girls’ mixed schools with the support of the African Development Bank • Girls given an additional 1.5 points to encourage higher enrolment in universities • Deliberate measures to increase women heads of education institutions • Emphasis on re-entry for drop outs due to early pregnancy • “One girl, one boy” policy on distribution of Government bursary for PLE best performing pupils per sub-county
Agenda for Improvement a). Strengthen Education SWAps, entrench Gender Mainstreaming Avenue? – take advantage of the SWAp process to engender the entire education programs. Specifically, strengthen govt technical capacity in gender mainstreaming
b). Focus on the excluded: through- • Altering education policies and address discriminatory laws and administrative rules; • Expanding options for educating out of school children, especially girls; • Improving quality and relevance of schools and classrooms by ensuring that excluded girls receive basic educational inputs and providing professional development to help teachers become agents of change; • Supporting compensatory ECD and in-school programs that engage and retain excluded children, particularly girls; • Creating incentives for households help overcome both the reluctance to send girls to school and the cost of doing so (Lewis and Lockheed, 2006)
c). Identifying priority areas for funding girls’ education through the EFA-FTI window – some, e.g. Uganda, Ethiopia, not benefited so far, should take advantage • d). Improve EMIS Needful: concerted efforts to make available a comprehensive data base. Strengthen the linkage and coordination between MoEs & other departments.
The Policy Front: Education SWAps and Gender Policies • SWAps exist in at least 8 ESAR countries: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Lesotho, Kenya, Mozambique, Madagascar and Malawi. • Nevertheless, concerns that a number of partners still engage in the project mode, and sometimes, there are multiple studies and projects being implemented by partners independently. • All countries in the region have endeavored to put in place national gender polices from which education sector gender policies have been or are being designed.