Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscleand Electroymography • Biomechanics of skeletal muscle • Readings: Hamill pp 76-81, 103-109 • Electromyography • Readings: Hamill pp 81-85; Cram pp 32-37, Ch 3; DeLuca website tutorial (http://www.delsys.com ),
The motor unit
Factors Influencing Production of Muscular Tension • Motor unit size • Muscle Fiber Type • Selective recruitment of fiber types: • SO FOG FG • Length - tension relationship • Force-velocity relationship
Recruitment proceeds from smallest fibers to largest (the size principle)
Electromyography: The analysis of muscle electrical activity • The electromyogram • Recording the Electromyogram • Factors affecting electromyogram • Analyzing the electromyogram • Applications of electromyography
The EMG signal
Recording the electromyogram • Electrodes – • Size • Number • Placement • Signal conduction – wires or telemetry? • Signal conditioning • Amplification • Filtering • Analog to digital conversion • Integration • Frequency analysis
The concept of Frequency decomposition
Converting EMG from time domain to frequency domain What is the time block, Or window over which Frequency analysis is done?
Applications of electromyography • Timing of excitation • Degree of excitation • Normalization procedures • Muscle force-emg relationship • Muscle fatigue • Clinical gait analysis • Ergonomics • Limitations of EMG
Windowing is a critical step in converting EMG signal from time to frequency domain
The fatigue index From EMG – Review the Assumptions Inherent in this procedure
Website article reading assignment • Go to website: http://www.delsys.com and download tutorial article on “surface electromyography detection and recording” • Be prepared to answer the following questions: • What is differential amplification? • What is common mode rejection ratio? • Where should electrodes be placed? • Where should electrodes not be placed? • How large should electrodes be? • Name 3 applications of EMG signal
Further readings on Electromyography • Journal articles with specific review assignments: • Hildenbrand & Noble. (2004) J Ath Trng. Abdominal muscle activity using different exercise equipment. • Caterisano, et al (2002) J Str & Cond Res. EMG of Hip and thigh muscles during back squat. • Anders (2006) ACE FitnessMatters. EMG of gluteus maximus during various hip extension exercises. • Additional detailed tutorial on methodology (optional): • Electromyography in biomechanics. • J Appl Biomech, 19:135-163. (can be found • DeLuca, C. J. (1997) “The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics” • on delsys.com website). Click on “library”, then “tutorials”, then article title.