chapter 6 ancient rome and early christianity
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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. Section 1 The Roman Republic. Section 1 Objective. Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed. Terms to Define. Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.

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section 1 objective
Section 1 Objective
  • Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed
terms to define
Terms to Define
  • Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.
  • Republic: a community in which the people elected the leaders.
  • Plebian: Most of Rome’s inhabitants, some wealthy, some not, non-aristocratic townspeople and landowners as well as merchants, shopkeepers, small farmers, and laborers.
  • Consul: Two patrician officials elected for one year terms. They had to consult each other before acting.
terms con t
Terms (con’t)
  • Dictator: a leader whose word was law—occurred mostly during times of crisis
  • Tribunes: representatives chosen by Plebians, granting them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions
people to meet
People to Meet
  • The Etruscans
  • The Latins
  • Romulus
  • The Tarquins
places to locate
Places to Locate
  • Italy
  • Sicily
  • Rome
introduction
Introduction
  • Greeks settled as colonies 900 B.C.
  • Set up farming communities
  • Planted olive trees and other crops
  • Introduced Greek alphabet
the italian peninsula
The Italian Peninsula
  • The Greeks were interested in colonizing Italy for several reasons

-Central location in the Mediterranean

-Rich soil

the italian peninsula1
The Italian Peninsula

Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

-Land to the north cut off by the Apls

Mild, moist, climate

-Ideally suited for trade among three continents—Europe, Asia, Africa

the italian peninsula2
The Italian Peninsula
  • Silt would often clog the rivers
    • Created mosquito infested areas
    • Epidemics of Malaria, etc
early inhabitants
Early Inhabitants
  • Generally traded among themselves

-Mountains

-Rocky coastline

-Covered 75% of the country

early inhabitants1
Early Inhabitants
  • Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

-Land to the north cut off by the Alps

-Generally traded among themselves

geographic problems
Geographic Problems
  • Silt created swamps which drew mosquitos
  • Marshy coastline wasn’t good for harbors
early peoples
Early Peoples
  • Neolithic cultures probably 5000 B.C.
  • People there long before the Greeks arrived or Roman civilization began
  • Villages and farms
indo europeans
Indo-Europeans
  • Umbrians, Latins (Latium--LAY-shee-uhm--), Oscans
  • Indo-European migrants arrived and overwhelmed the Neolithic peoples on Italian Peninsula 2000-1000 B.C.
the etruscans
The Etruscans
  • Ruled northern Italy from 900 B.C. to 500 B.C.
  • Did not speak Indo-European languages
  • Their alphabet came from the Greeks—but only a few Etruscan words have been deciphered
the etruscans con t
The Etruscans (con’t)
  • Etruscans writing baffles scientists
  • Etruscan art (paintings and sculptures) is expressive, needing no translation

-dancing, playing, rich and pleasant life

the etruscans1
The Etruscans
  • The Etruscans…more
    • feasting, conversing, wrestling matches
    • Triumphant soldiers
    • Beautiful deities, smile and gesture
the etruscans con t1
The Etruscans (con’t)
  • Wealthy overlords
  • Aristocratic priests
  • Slave labor
  • Slaves forced to dual to the death to appease angry gods
  • Lower classes finally freed themselves—chief among them were the Latins who settled in Rome
the etruscans2
The Etruscans
  • The Latins freed themselves after being offended by the Etruscans
  • Son of Etruscan king savages matron, Lucretia
the rise of rome legend
The Rise of Rome--Legend
  • Legend

-753 B.C. Romulus was building a wall for his city on the side of a hill overlooking the Tiber River

-Twin brother Remus building on the other side of the hill

the rise of rome
The Rise of Rome
  • According to Roman historian Livy, Remus leaped over the wall built by Romulus and mocked him.
  • Romulus killed Remus warning, “so perish whoever else shall overleap my battlements”
romulus myth
Romulus--myth
  • Continued to build Rome—named after him
    • Romulus—myth—great military commander
    • Rome continues to expand
  • Rome became the greatest city in that part of the peninsula
rome origins
Rome Origins
  • Latins

-Huddled in huts on seven hills

-At some point, 800 B.C.-700 B.C., they joined to become one community--Rome

etruscan rule
Etruscan Rule
  • About 620 B.C., the Etruscan gained control of Rome
  • The Tarquins, name of Etruscan family

-Taught the Latins to use brick to build

-Drained the lowlands and laid out streets

etruscan rule1
Etruscan Rule
  • Created the Forum in the middle of the city—which became the government building

-Served as kings for Rome

the tarquins
The Tarquins
  • Wealthy Etruscan family
  • Provided kings for rule
  • Taught Romans to built with brick and tile their roofs
  • Drained marsh lands and designed streets
the tarquins1
The Tarquins
  • Created a square called the Forum
    • The seat of government
tarquins driven out
Tarquins Driven Out
  • Tarquin the Proud—very cruel
  • Romans drive the Tarquins out
  • Etruscans stay and help Rome prosper
  • Tarquin kings son violates Lacretia
social groups
Social Groups
  • Latin nobles called “patricians”
    • Patricians declared Rome a republic
    • Wealthy aristocrats
social groups1
Social Groups
  • Most of Rome’s inhabitants were plebians,

-Both patricians and plebians could vote

-Both responsible for serving in military

social groups2
Social Groups

Patricians

Plebians

Vote

Pay taxes

Serve in the military

  • Vote
  • Pay taxes
  • Serve in the military
  • Could hold public office
the roman republic
The Roman Republic
  • Patricians organized Rome’s government into executive and legislative branches
  • Executive Branch
    • Two consuls assigned day-to-day affairs
    • One year terms
    • Each could veto the other
    • Veto: Latin for “I forbid”
the roman republic1
The Roman Republic
  • Consuls oversaw other officials
    • Praetors: judges
    • Censors: keepers of taxes
  • Only a dictator could overrule the consuls
  • Dictators appointed in times of crisis
the roman republic2
The Roman Republic
  • Legislative Branch

-Assembly of Centuries (named for 100 soldiers)

-Senate

the roman republic3
The Roman Republic

Assembly of Centuries

Senate

Executive Branch

Under Patrician control

Power outweighed Assembly

Members—300

Served for life

Advised Consuls

Proposed laws

Approved contracts

  • Elected from Executive Branch officials
  • Under patrician control
  • Named for military formation
  • Members—100
  • Temporary office
  • Little real power
cincinnatus
Cincinnatus
  • Most respected dictator
  • Rival threatened Rome
  • Found plowing his fields
  • Led his troops to victory
  • Resigned as dictator and returned to his fields within 16 days
plebians against patricians
Plebians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians resented power of Patricians
  • Knew they could not rule without them.
  • Plebeians made up most of military forces
  • Patricians concerned about the military
plebeians against patricians
Plebeians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians went on strike
  • Left city create their own republic
tribunes
Tribunes
  • Patricians meet some demands
    • Recognized the Plebeians chosen representatives,“Tribunes”
    • Granted them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions
    • Tribunes were members of the Magistrate of Plebeians and had some power
tribunes1
Tribunes
  • Patricians recognized the Assembly of Tribes, the body of plebeians that elected tribunes
  • Tribunes could veto any government decision
tribunes2
Tribunes
  • Could not be arrested
  • Injuring a Tribune was cause to be put to death
old and new laws
Old and New Laws
  • Plebeians insisted laws put in writing
  • The Twelve Tablets: basis of Roman law
  • Plebeians gain right to serve in public office
  • Right to make laws in Assembly of Tribes
changes for plebeians
Changes for Plebeians
  • Debt enslavement ended
  • Patrician/Plebeian marriage approved
  • Plebeians moved Rome closer to democracy
  • The most significant victory—the Twelve Tables—a written law code
the twelve tables
The Twelve Tables
  • Roman law had rested on unwritten traditions
    • patrician judges interpreted unfairly
    • Plebeians insisted laws be written down
the twelve tables1
The Twelve Tables
  • 451 B.C. patricians engraved the laws on 12 bronze tablets set in the Forum

-standards for laws

-principle that citizens protected by law

religion
Religion
  • Early Etruscans worshipped “spirits” ultimately seen as gods or deities
  • Adopted practice of foretelling the future
religion1
Religion
  • Priests known as soothsayers
  • Watched flight of birds or intestines of animals to gain knowledge of future
religion2
Religion
  • Roman influenced by Greek culture
  • 500 years as a republic
  • Borrowed Greek deities giving them Roman names

-Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love, became the Roman goddess, Venus

-Ares, Greek god of war, became Mars

- Etc.

religion con t
Religion (con’t)
  • Families privately worshipped their ancestral spirits and their storeroom guardians
  • Worshipped Vesta, goddess of the hearth
family
Family
  • The basic unit of roman society
  • Large and close knit
  • Unmarried children, married sons and their family, all independent relatives, and household slaves
  • The father was the absolute head
father as absolute family head
Father as Absolute Family Head
  • Conducted religious ceremonies
  • Controlled property
  • Supervised education of his sons
  • Could sell his family members into slavery
  • Could kill family members
  • However, fathers felt deep sense of responsibility for family
roman women
Roman Women
  • Few rights, but more than Greek women
  • Hosted parties, did marketing, ran households
  • Occasionally, acquired property and businesses
  • Could study art, Greek literature, etc
  • Wealthy could let slaves do work
roman children
Roman Children
  • Firm discipline
  • Complete family loyalty
parental training
Parental Training
  • Parents taught children reading, writing, and moral standards
  • Fathers trained boys: farmers and soldiers
  • Mothers taught daughters to run households
values
Values
  • Thrift
  • Discipline
  • Self-sacrifice
  • Devotion to family
  • Devotion to the republic
ad