chapter 6 ancient rome and early christianity
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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. Section 1 The Roman Republic. Section 1 Objective. Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed. Terms to Define. Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.

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section 1 objective
Section 1 Objective
  • Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed
terms to define
Terms to Define
  • Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.
  • Republic: a community in which the people elected the leaders.
  • Plebian: Most of Rome’s inhabitants, some wealthy, some not, non-aristocratic townspeople and landowners as well as merchants, shopkeepers, small farmers, and laborers.
  • Consul: Two patrician officials elected for one year terms. They had to consult each other before acting.
terms con t
Terms (con’t)
  • Dictator: a leader whose word was law—occurred mostly during times of crisis
  • Tribunes: representatives chosen by Plebians, granting them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions
people to meet
People to Meet
  • The Etruscans
  • The Latins
  • Romulus
  • The Tarquins
places to locate
Places to Locate
  • Italy
  • Sicily
  • Rome
  • Greeks settled as colonies 900 B.C.
  • Set up farming communities
  • Planted olive trees and other crops
  • Introduced Greek alphabet
the italian peninsula
The Italian Peninsula
  • The Greeks were interested in colonizing Italy for several reasons

-Central location in the Mediterranean

-Rich soil

the italian peninsula1
The Italian Peninsula

Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

-Land to the north cut off by the Apls

Mild, moist, climate

-Ideally suited for trade among three continents—Europe, Asia, Africa

the italian peninsula2
The Italian Peninsula
  • Silt would often clog the rivers
    • Created mosquito infested areas
    • Epidemics of Malaria, etc
early inhabitants
Early Inhabitants
  • Generally traded among themselves


-Rocky coastline

-Covered 75% of the country

early inhabitants1
Early Inhabitants
  • Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

-Land to the north cut off by the Alps

-Generally traded among themselves

geographic problems
Geographic Problems
  • Silt created swamps which drew mosquitos
  • Marshy coastline wasn’t good for harbors
early peoples
Early Peoples
  • Neolithic cultures probably 5000 B.C.
  • People there long before the Greeks arrived or Roman civilization began
  • Villages and farms
indo europeans
  • Umbrians, Latins (Latium--LAY-shee-uhm--), Oscans
  • Indo-European migrants arrived and overwhelmed the Neolithic peoples on Italian Peninsula 2000-1000 B.C.
the etruscans
The Etruscans
  • Ruled northern Italy from 900 B.C. to 500 B.C.
  • Did not speak Indo-European languages
  • Their alphabet came from the Greeks—but only a few Etruscan words have been deciphered
the etruscans con t
The Etruscans (con’t)
  • Etruscans writing baffles scientists
  • Etruscan art (paintings and sculptures) is expressive, needing no translation

-dancing, playing, rich and pleasant life

the etruscans1
The Etruscans
  • The Etruscans…more
    • feasting, conversing, wrestling matches
    • Triumphant soldiers
    • Beautiful deities, smile and gesture
the etruscans con t1
The Etruscans (con’t)
  • Wealthy overlords
  • Aristocratic priests
  • Slave labor
  • Slaves forced to dual to the death to appease angry gods
  • Lower classes finally freed themselves—chief among them were the Latins who settled in Rome
the etruscans2
The Etruscans
  • The Latins freed themselves after being offended by the Etruscans
  • Son of Etruscan king savages matron, Lucretia
the rise of rome legend
The Rise of Rome--Legend
  • Legend

-753 B.C. Romulus was building a wall for his city on the side of a hill overlooking the Tiber River

-Twin brother Remus building on the other side of the hill

the rise of rome
The Rise of Rome
  • According to Roman historian Livy, Remus leaped over the wall built by Romulus and mocked him.
  • Romulus killed Remus warning, “so perish whoever else shall overleap my battlements”
romulus myth
  • Continued to build Rome—named after him
    • Romulus—myth—great military commander
    • Rome continues to expand
  • Rome became the greatest city in that part of the peninsula
rome origins
Rome Origins
  • Latins

-Huddled in huts on seven hills

-At some point, 800 B.C.-700 B.C., they joined to become one community--Rome

etruscan rule
Etruscan Rule
  • About 620 B.C., the Etruscan gained control of Rome
  • The Tarquins, name of Etruscan family

-Taught the Latins to use brick to build

-Drained the lowlands and laid out streets

etruscan rule1
Etruscan Rule
  • Created the Forum in the middle of the city—which became the government building

-Served as kings for Rome

the tarquins
The Tarquins
  • Wealthy Etruscan family
  • Provided kings for rule
  • Taught Romans to built with brick and tile their roofs
  • Drained marsh lands and designed streets
the tarquins1
The Tarquins
  • Created a square called the Forum
    • The seat of government
tarquins driven out
Tarquins Driven Out
  • Tarquin the Proud—very cruel
  • Romans drive the Tarquins out
  • Etruscans stay and help Rome prosper
  • Tarquin kings son violates Lacretia
social groups
Social Groups
  • Latin nobles called “patricians”
    • Patricians declared Rome a republic
    • Wealthy aristocrats
social groups1
Social Groups
  • Most of Rome’s inhabitants were plebians,

-Both patricians and plebians could vote

-Both responsible for serving in military

social groups2
Social Groups




Pay taxes

Serve in the military

  • Vote
  • Pay taxes
  • Serve in the military
  • Could hold public office
the roman republic
The Roman Republic
  • Patricians organized Rome’s government into executive and legislative branches
  • Executive Branch
    • Two consuls assigned day-to-day affairs
    • One year terms
    • Each could veto the other
    • Veto: Latin for “I forbid”
the roman republic1
The Roman Republic
  • Consuls oversaw other officials
    • Praetors: judges
    • Censors: keepers of taxes
  • Only a dictator could overrule the consuls
  • Dictators appointed in times of crisis
the roman republic2
The Roman Republic
  • Legislative Branch

-Assembly of Centuries (named for 100 soldiers)


the roman republic3
The Roman Republic

Assembly of Centuries


Executive Branch

Under Patrician control

Power outweighed Assembly


Served for life

Advised Consuls

Proposed laws

Approved contracts

  • Elected from Executive Branch officials
  • Under patrician control
  • Named for military formation
  • Members—100
  • Temporary office
  • Little real power
  • Most respected dictator
  • Rival threatened Rome
  • Found plowing his fields
  • Led his troops to victory
  • Resigned as dictator and returned to his fields within 16 days
plebians against patricians
Plebians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians resented power of Patricians
  • Knew they could not rule without them.
  • Plebeians made up most of military forces
  • Patricians concerned about the military
plebeians against patricians
Plebeians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians went on strike
  • Left city create their own republic
  • Patricians meet some demands
    • Recognized the Plebeians chosen representatives,“Tribunes”
    • Granted them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions
    • Tribunes were members of the Magistrate of Plebeians and had some power
  • Patricians recognized the Assembly of Tribes, the body of plebeians that elected tribunes
  • Tribunes could veto any government decision
  • Could not be arrested
  • Injuring a Tribune was cause to be put to death
old and new laws
Old and New Laws
  • Plebeians insisted laws put in writing
  • The Twelve Tablets: basis of Roman law
  • Plebeians gain right to serve in public office
  • Right to make laws in Assembly of Tribes
changes for plebeians
Changes for Plebeians
  • Debt enslavement ended
  • Patrician/Plebeian marriage approved
  • Plebeians moved Rome closer to democracy
  • The most significant victory—the Twelve Tables—a written law code
the twelve tables
The Twelve Tables
  • Roman law had rested on unwritten traditions
    • patrician judges interpreted unfairly
    • Plebeians insisted laws be written down
the twelve tables1
The Twelve Tables
  • 451 B.C. patricians engraved the laws on 12 bronze tablets set in the Forum

-standards for laws

-principle that citizens protected by law

  • Early Etruscans worshipped “spirits” ultimately seen as gods or deities
  • Adopted practice of foretelling the future
  • Priests known as soothsayers
  • Watched flight of birds or intestines of animals to gain knowledge of future
  • Roman influenced by Greek culture
  • 500 years as a republic
  • Borrowed Greek deities giving them Roman names

-Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love, became the Roman goddess, Venus

-Ares, Greek god of war, became Mars

- Etc.

religion con t
Religion (con’t)
  • Families privately worshipped their ancestral spirits and their storeroom guardians
  • Worshipped Vesta, goddess of the hearth
  • The basic unit of roman society
  • Large and close knit
  • Unmarried children, married sons and their family, all independent relatives, and household slaves
  • The father was the absolute head
father as absolute family head
Father as Absolute Family Head
  • Conducted religious ceremonies
  • Controlled property
  • Supervised education of his sons
  • Could sell his family members into slavery
  • Could kill family members
  • However, fathers felt deep sense of responsibility for family
roman women
Roman Women
  • Few rights, but more than Greek women
  • Hosted parties, did marketing, ran households
  • Occasionally, acquired property and businesses
  • Could study art, Greek literature, etc
  • Wealthy could let slaves do work
roman children
Roman Children
  • Firm discipline
  • Complete family loyalty
parental training
Parental Training
  • Parents taught children reading, writing, and moral standards
  • Fathers trained boys: farmers and soldiers
  • Mothers taught daughters to run households
  • Thrift
  • Discipline
  • Self-sacrifice
  • Devotion to family
  • Devotion to the republic