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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. Section 1: The Roman Republic. The Italian Peninsula Centrally located in the Mediterranean. Mountains and highlands comprised ¾ of the terrain with much of the remainder containing rich dark soil. Cut off from Europe by the Alps to the north.

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section 1 the roman republic
Section 1: The Roman Republic
  • The Italian Peninsula
      • Centrally located in the Mediterranean.
      • Mountains and highlands comprised ¾ of the terrain with much of the remainder containing rich dark soil.
      • Cut off from Europe by the Alps to the north.
        • Gallia Cis-Alpina and Gallia Trans-Alpina.
    • Early Peoples
        • Probably inhabited early on by Neolithic peoples who were semi-nomadic.
      • Indo-Europeans
        • Multiple migrations of Indo-European peoples entered into Italy.
          • Umbrians- north
          • Latins-central plains called Latium
          • Oscans- south
      • The Etruscans
        • Scholars are uncertain of the origins of the Etruscans who did not speak an indo-European language.
        • Borrowed the Greek alphabet but largely un-deciphered.
        • Very expressive art and sculpture.
slide4
Probably had a society with wealthy overlords, aristocratic priests, peasant class, and a slave labor force.
        • Developed what would become the gladiatorial games.
  • The Rise of Rome
        • Ab Urbe Condita – “From the founding of the city”
          • Takes place around 753 B.C.
          • Legend of Romulus and Remus
          • Communities of the Seven Hills of Rome unite to form what become the city.
    • Etruscan Rule
      • After a period of rule by Latin Kings, the Etruscans gain control of the city.
      • During the reign of the Tarquin Kings, the Latins learned to build with brick and to use tile roofs.
      • The swampy lowland was drained and city streets were built as well as the center known as the Forum.
        • Economic and political center of Rome.
      • Under the rule of the Tarquin the Proud, the people revolted and expelled the Tarquins from the city.
        • Legend of the Rape of Lucretia
slide5
Fasces: symbol of authority
  • Social Groups
    • Patricians – noble class that traditionally controlled the Senate.
    • Plebeians – wealthy middle class, merchants, farmers, and workers.
    • All had the right to vote ( at different degrees) and had to pay taxes and serve in the military.
      • Plebeians could not hold public office like the Patricians.
  • The Roman Republic
    • The Patricians organized a legislative and judicial branch.
      • The Executive Branch consisted of the Consulship.
      • Two consuls selected from the Senate, served for a one year term.
      • Each had the power to veto the other.
      • Responsible for overseeing other officials such as praetors and censors.
      • Dictators: Temporarily elected during times of crisis.
      • Senate: 300 patricians elected for life.
      • Assembly of the Centuries: Elected from the plebian class but less powerful than the Senate.
slide6
Plebeians against Patricians
    • 494 B.C.- Plebeians succeed from the city in order to gain more political power.
      • Tribunes:chosen representatives elected by the Assembly of the Tribes. Protected by the law and could veto government decisions.
      • 451 B.C.: The Twelve Tables/ written laws located in the Forum.
      • By 287 B.C. plebeians could reach high public office and make laws in the Assembly of the Tribes.
  • Religion
    • Fortune telling; augury, soothsayers
    • Heavily influenced by the Greeks.
      • Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Pluto, Saturn, Neptune…
      • Ancestor worship. Vesta: hearth
  • Family
    • Large extended family.
    • Pater Familias: head of the household/ absolute authority.
    • Women generally had more freedoms than Greek women.
    • Strict discipline of children and family members.
    • Thrift, discipline, self-sacrifice, devotion to family, honor, and duty were traditional Roman values.
section 2 expansion and crisis
Section 2 Expansion and Crisis
  • Roman Legions
      • Male citizens who owned land had to serve in the military.
      • The Romans adapted the Greek phalanx formation.
        • Legions: 6,000 men
          • Smaller divisions of 60 – 120 soldiers.
        • Strict discipline. (Decimate)
      • Conquered peoples were treated well if they cooperated. Offered various forms of citizenship.
        • Coloniae: permanent military settlements/colonies
          • Roads built to link colonies/trade routes.
  • Roman against Carthage
      • By 300 B.C. Carthage was the most powerful Mediterranean city. Known to the Romans as Punici.
    • The First Punic War
      • Carthage threatened to seize the Strait of Messina.
      • Carthage had naval superiority forcing the Romans to build a navy of their own.
        • Grappling hooks to board the enemy ships.
        • Romans win forcing Carthage to pay a huge indemnity.
slide8
The Second Punic War
    • 221B.C. Hannibal became the Carthaginian General in Spain. Father- Hamilcar – Oath
    • Captured a Roman allied city.
    • Marched 40,000 soldiers and 40 elephants across Gaul, over the Alps and into Italy.
      • Lost half of his forces and most of his elephants.
    • Defeated Roman legions at every turn nearly destroying the entire army at Cannae.
    • Romans regrouped under Scipio.
    • Scipio attacked Carthage to protect Rome.
      • Defeated Hannibal at Zama in 202 B.C.
      • Scipio Africanus – Forced yet another indemnity and forced Carthage to hand over most of their navy.
  • The Third Punic War
    • Carthage regained strength despite the indemnity.
    • Rome wanted to eliminate Carthage once and for all.
      • Started another war by convincing an ally to attack Carthage.
      • 146 B.C.: Carthage was burned, population sold into slavery, and fields sowed with salt.
      • Rome now controlled the Western Mediterranean.
slide9
The Republic in Crisis
      • Expansion caused problems in governing the provinces.
      • Nearly all of the Mediterranean was under Roman rule or in friendly alliance with Rome.
      • Mare Nostrum – “Our Sea”
      • Roman government designed to manage a city-state, not an empire.
    • Exploiting the provinces
      • Provinces paid tribute to Rome.
      • Proconsuls were appointed by the Senate to govern the provinces.
        • Often accepted bribes and stole from the treasuries.
        • Tax collectors also took money from the provinces.
        • Provinces often rebelled forcing the Romans to place standing garrisons and legions in the area.
        • Romans put down Jewish revolt and sacked Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
      • Changing the Countryside
        • Latifundia – plantations/ slave labor
        • Produced grains at a cheaper price.
        • Forced small farmers of the farms and into the cities.
        • Latifundia captured the market in grains, olives, grapes, and livestock.
slide10
Crowding in the Cities
        • Landless farmers enter the cities looking for jobs that were already taken by slaves. Equites – “knights” wealthy merchants/ not nobility.
  • Reformers and Generals
    • The Gracchi
      • Tiberius Gracchus – grandson of Scipio – elected to the Tribunate in 133. B.C.
        • Passed agrarian legislation to give land to the poor despite opposition from the Senate.
        • Murdered along with 300 supporters by angry Patricians.
      • Gaius Gracchus – brother – elected Tribune 10 yrs. later.
        • Passed laws giving land to the poor and organized programs to sell grain at cheaper prices.
        • Also murdered in a riot organized by his opponents.
    • Marius and Sulla
      • Gaius Marius was elected Consul in 107 B.C.
        • Provided jobs in the army.
        • Paid soldiers and promised them land on retirement.
        • Soldiers owed allegiance to the General not the State.
      • Lucius Cornelius Sulla – Arguing over control of the eastern armies, used his army to attack Rome and push Marius into exile.
slide11
The First Triumvirate
    • Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus elected consuls in 70 B.C.
    • Gained support of Julius Caesar in 60 B.C. forming a Triumvirate.
    • Caesar took control of the legions in Gaul and soon conquered the Celts as he pushed further north into Europe.
    • Crassus killed in battle in 53 B.C.
    • Pompey and the Senate recall Caesar and force him to leave his legions north of the Rubicon river.
    • Caesar crosses the Rubicon with his soldiers and within two months captured all of Italy and drove Pompey and his allies out and finally defeated him.
  • Julius Caesar
    • 45 B.C. – Caesar took the title of Dictator for Life.
      • Gave jobs to the unemployed, public land to the poor, granted citizenship to many people in the provinces.
      • Julian calendar.
      • Despite great popularity among the people, Senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius assassinated Caesar on his way to the Senate.
slide12
End of the Republic
      • Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian joined with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus and formed a Second Triumvirate and defeated the armies of Caesar's assassins in 42 B.C..
      • Octavian took command of Italy, Antony ruled in Greece, and Lepidus took control of North Africa.
      • Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement and convinced the Romans that Antony wanted to invade Italy with his and Cleopatra’s army.
      • Octavian soundly defeated Marc Antony’s navy at the battle of Actium in Greece. A year later, Antony and Cleopatra both committed suicide to avoid capture.
      • Octavian became the sole ruler of Rome.