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30.2 Food and Nutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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30.2 Food and Nutrition
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  1. 30.2 Food and Nutrition Food and Energy Energy: Cells use chemical NRG in food to make ATP (cell fuel) ATP powers cell activities Measure food NRG by burning: 1 calorie = heat needed to raise 1 gm H2O 1 ◦C 1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie or 1 dietary Calorie Raw Materials: substances body needs (but can’t manufacture) to build/repair body tissues

  2. Nutrients • Water: most important • Cells need for proper chemical function • Dehydration: water loss greater than intake • Drink 1 liter fluids each day • Carbohydrates: • Main NRG source • Simple/complex carbs converted to glucose • Cells metabolize to ATP for cell work • Glycogen: excess sugar stored in liver or converted to fat • Cellulose: plant fiber helps clean Dig. Sys

  3. Fats/Lipids Help absorb fat-soluble vitamins In cell membranes, nerves, hormones Protect/insulate Energy storage Polyunsaturated (more than one double bond) Trans fats: manufactures add H; solid at room temp; longer shelf life Linked to heart disease

  4. Proteins: Raw materials for growth/repair of body structures Enzymes speed up body chemical reactions Hormones: insulin regulates body sugar Hemoglobins carries O2 in RBC”S

  5. E. Amino Acids: make up proteins 8 essential AA: needed in diet F. Vitamins: need small doses; organic tools to build body components G. Minerals: inorganic nutrient molecules like Ca (bone health) and Fe (blood health)

  6. Nutrition and Balanced Diet Balanced Diet: adequate nutrients and energy molecules to maintain health weight Food labels: nutrition information Fat: 9 C/gram (C-H bonds: harder to break releasing more energy) Carb/Protein: 4 C/gram % Daily Value/2000 cal. Diet Age, gender, lifestyle affect need

  7. Healthful Weight Obesity: influenced by inactivity; high calorie diet

  8. Physical activity: burns excess calories; strengthens heart, bones, muscles Amer. Heart Association: Diet w/30% Fat Max 7% Saturated; 1% trans fats Hi levels increase risk of heart disease & type II diabetes