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1914-1918: The World at War

1914-1918: The World at War

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1914-1918: The World at War

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  1. 1914-1918:The Worldat War By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Chappaqua, NY

  2. Causesof theWar

  3. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

  4. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

  5. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

  6. Europe in 1914

  7. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Because of tensions, all the countries tried to keep an army prepared for war – it helped develop PRIDE (patriotism) in country However, the country that increased their military the MOST was Germany…and this made everyone else nervous

  8. 3. Imperialism and its rivalries

  9. Imperialism • Imperialism had divided AFRICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AMERICAS WHY? The imperial powers were competing for power EVERYWHERE in the world…a world war was bound to happen

  10. 4. Aggressive Nationalism

  11. Nationalism = a deep devotion to one’s nation • Nationalism is a good thing if its patriotic • It can be a bad thing if it causes tension, competition and a sense of superiority over others • France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary and Russia were all competing for resources, markets and territory

  12. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe

  13. The“Spark”

  14. Ottomans and the Balkans • “Sick man of Europe” – behind economically, technologically & militarily • Rebellions and independent movements (Greece, Serbia) • France and Britain controlled much of Ottoman empire…angered Russia and the “Young Turks” who advocated “Turkification”

  15. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

  16. The Assassination: Sarajevo

  17. The Assassin: GavriloPrincip

  18. The “Spark” • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a 19-year old Serbian nationalist • Austria declared war on Serbia – but Russia was an ally of Serbia…Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary…all the other alliances came into play!

  19. Who’s To Blame?

  20. The Schlieffen Plan Attack and defeat France, then run back to fight Russia…move fast Russia lags behind industrially, takes long to mobilize

  21. Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!

  22. Recruitment Posters

  23. A Young Australian Recruit

  24. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians

  25. New French Recruits

  26. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

  27. Red Cross Nurses

  28. Russian Women Soldiers

  29. Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!

  30. Financing the War

  31. German Poster Think of Your Children!

  32. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

  33. A Multi-Front War

  34. The Western Front

  35. Trench Warfare “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud and dreamed mud”…500 miles from N. Sea to Swiss border – 4 years: 2-3 miles

  36. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

  37. Trench Warfare • Rats, no bathroom, sleep in mud, blood all over, lie next to the dead • Western Front was almost 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border

  38. Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive against French • Each side: 500,000 casualties. • Only 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain

  39. The Somme – July, 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

  40. War IsHELL !!

  41. Sacrifices in War

  42. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

  43. TheEasternFront

  44. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Turks secretly sign alliance with Germany…British try to close the strait…fail

  45. T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18 British ask Hussein ibn Ali to lead Arab revolt ag. Turks…helped put down the Ottoman Empire / B. make promises to Jews as well

  46. T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19