1914-1918:The Worldat War By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Chappaqua, NY
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
2. Militarism & Arms Race Because of tensions, all the countries tried to keep an army prepared for war – it helped develop PRIDE (patriotism) in country However, the country that increased their military the MOST was Germany…and this made everyone else nervous
Imperialism • Imperialism had divided AFRICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AMERICAS WHY? The imperial powers were competing for power EVERYWHERE in the world…a world war was bound to happen
Nationalism = a deep devotion to one’s nation • Nationalism is a good thing if its patriotic • It can be a bad thing if it causes tension, competition and a sense of superiority over others • France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary and Russia were all competing for resources, markets and territory
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
Ottomans and the Balkans • “Sick man of Europe” – behind economically, technologically & militarily • Rebellions and independent movements (Greece, Serbia) • France and Britain controlled much of Ottoman empire…angered Russia and the “Young Turks” who advocated “Turkification”
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
The “Spark” • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a 19-year old Serbian nationalist • Austria declared war on Serbia – but Russia was an ally of Serbia…Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary…all the other alliances came into play!
The Schlieffen Plan Attack and defeat France, then run back to fight Russia…move fast Russia lags behind industrially, takes long to mobilize
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!
German Poster Think of Your Children!
Trench Warfare “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud and dreamed mud”…500 miles from N. Sea to Swiss border – 4 years: 2-3 miles
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Trench Warfare • Rats, no bathroom, sleep in mud, blood all over, lie next to the dead • Western Front was almost 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border
Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive against French • Each side: 500,000 casualties. • Only 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain
The Somme – July, 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Turks secretly sign alliance with Germany…British try to close the strait…fail
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18 British ask Hussein ibn Ali to lead Arab revolt ag. Turks…helped put down the Ottoman Empire / B. make promises to Jews as well