3D Printing By Michael Plouffe
What is it? • Process of making 3D solid objects from a digital file • Ordinarily a CAD file • Achieved through an additive manufacturing • Layer by layer material is printed until final shape is created • Construction can take several hours to several days depending on complexity • Castle took 6 hours. • Used in nearly every business out there that involves creating a physical object • Many objects used daily are printed – Legos, Rubik's Cubes, etc
Cost of Printers • 3D printing on a commercial level is very expensive • Lower end machines cost around 30,000, while the more expensive ones can be 100,000. • Base materials also very expensive. • Castle was around $40. Seems like a lot but manual labor to produce it without a machine would be even more expensive • Consumer versions are not very powerful are much cheaper • Cheap 3d printers can even be recursively printed through each other. The RepRap model can print out the majority of itself. • PRINTCEPTION!
Methods • Depending on the method used to print, objects can be created in metal, plastic, paper, ceramic, plaster, and foil • Certain methods are faster and more efficient than others • 3 Main Methods • Laminated Object Manufacturing • Selective Laser Sintering • Stereolithography
Laminated Object Manufacturing • Base materials are paper, polymers, and metals • Base material is already hardened in very thin layers • Laser cuts shapes each layer out in the right shape and melts them all together.
Selective Laser Sintering • Base material of metal or ceramic powder. • Powerful laser is shined on certain aspects of the powder and hardens it • As the machine goes, it is pulled away from the laser allowing powder to flow over the hardened parts • Allows for layers to be created making a 3D object instead of a 2D one
Stereolithography • The most commonly known and used 3D printer • Base material is photopolymer • Base is a liquid in a giant bin. • Laser is shined as certain aspects of the liquid which causes it to harden. • Object is pulled away allowing liquid to flow over hardened parts and create layers
3D Scanners • 3D objects can be scanned by special 3D scanners to create an electronic file of them • Scanners can even notice moving parts and correctly implement then into the file • These files can then be used in 3D printers to print out copies of the object. • Essentially allows for objects to be copied and printed out like ordinary paper is.
Example Video • This is actually a Powder Bed • Not commonly used anymore • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aghzpO_UZE&feature=player_detailpage#t=110s