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  1. 3D – PRINTING (a new emerging technology) Gagan Kumar C.S.E 8thSem 3710103

  2. Topics • What is 3D printing? • History • General Principle • Additive Process • 3D Printers • Applications  • Resources The Audi RSQ was made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKA robots.

  3. What is 3D printing? • 3D printing or Additive manufacturing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. • 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of materials are laid down in different shapes. • 3D printing is also considered distinct from traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling. • A 3D printer is a limited type of industrial robot that is capable of carrying out an additive process under computer control.

  4. history • 3D printing technology has been around since the 1980s, it was not until the early 2010s that the printers became widely available commercially. • The first working 3D printer was created in 1984 by Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corp. • Since the start of 21st century there has been a large growth in the sales of these machines, and their price has dropped substantially. • According to Wohlers Associates, a consultancy, the market for 3D printers and services was worth $2.2 billion worldwide in 2012, up 29% from 2011.

  5. General Principles • Modeling • Printing • Finishing

  6. General Principles • Modeling: • 3D printable models may be created with a computer aided design (CAD) package or via 3D scanner. • The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. • 3D scanning is a process of analyzing and collecting data of real object; its shape and appearance and builds digital, three dimensional models. • Both manual and automatic creation of 3D printable models is difficult for average consumers.

  7. General Principles • Printing: • To perform a print, the machine reads the design from 3D printable file and lays down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to build the model from a series of cross sections. • These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross sections from the CAD model, are joined automatically fused to create the final shape. • The primary advantage of this technique is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature.

  8. General Principles • Finishing : • Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater precision.

  9. Printers • Industry Use: • As of October 2012, Stratasys, the result of a merger of an American and an Israeli company, now sells additive manufacturing systems that range from $2,000 to $500,000; General Electric uses the high-end model to build parts for turbines.

  10. printers • Consumer Use: • Several projects and companies are making efforts to develop affordable 3D printers for home desktop use. • Much of this work has been driven by and targeted at DIY/early adopter communities, with additional ties to the academic and hacker communities. • RepRap is one of the longest running projects in the desktop category. The RepRap project aims to produce a free and open source hardware 3D printer, whose full specifications are released under the GNU, and which is capable of replacing itself by printing many of its own (plastic) parts to create more machines. RepRap version 2.0

  11. applications • INDUSTRIAL USE: • Rapid Prototyping – in these generally larger machines use powdered metals, casting media (e.g. sand), plastics, paper or cartridges are used for rapid prototyping by universities and commercial companies. • Rapid Manufacturing –Advances in RP technology have introduced materials hat are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components. • Mass Customization –Companies have created services where consumers can customize objects using simplified web based customization software. • Mass Production –The current slow print speed of 3D printers limits their use for mass production, to reduce this overhead, several fused filament machines now offer multiple extruder heads.

  12. APPLICATIONS • DOMESTIC AND HOBBYIST USE: • Clothing – 3D printing has spread into the world of clothing with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed shoes and dresses. • 3D Bio- Printing –3D bio-printing technology has been studies by biotechnology firms for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. • 3D printing for implant and medical device – 3D printing has been used to print specific implant and device for medical use. In March 2014, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident. • 4. 3D printing services –Some companies offer on-line 3D printing services open to both consumers and industries. Such services require people to upload their 3D designs to the company website.

  13. 3D Printers Working • Watch the video

  14. Thank You