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The 1848 Revolutions in the German States . Prussia. King Frederick William IV – ruled 1840-1861 Autocratic ruler of Prussia Loyalty to Habsburg royal family and Austria 1847 – Summoned Prussian Landtag (the United Diet) to discuss liberal reforms to the budget/law making

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prussia
Prussia
  • King Frederick William IV – ruled 1840-1861
    • Autocratic ruler of Prussia
    • Loyalty to Habsburg royal family and Austria
  • 1847 – Summoned Prussian Landtag (the United Diet) to discuss liberal reforms to the budget/law making
    • King refused to yield any power
  • March 1848 – Demonstrations in Berlin – triggered by demonstrations in France against monarchy
    • King’s troops attempted to break up the demonstration with violence
    • King ordered troops to leave Berlin
slide3

May 1848 – King agreed to the formation of a constituent assembly

    • Liberal representatives
  • Nov 1848 – King used force to take back Berlin and to disperse the assembly
  • Dec 1848 – Frederick created own constitution
    • Bicameral legislature
      • Lower House – elected by universal manhood suffrage – wealthy votes weighted more to protect conservative interests
      • Upper House – reps appointed by the king
austria
Austria
  • King Ferdinand I – Habsburg monarchy
  • Multinational / multiethnic empire
    • Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Poles, Rumanians, Croats
  • 1848 – Louis Kossuth led movement in Budapest, Hungary – called for constitution for Hungary
    • Demanded political autonomy
  • 1848 – Student movement in Vienna, Austria
    • Demanded free speech, free press
slide5

March 1848 – Austrian army used force against student demonstration

    • Ferdinand called off army and removed army from Vienna
    • Allowed for more liberal constitution
    • Metternich resigned position and fled to London
  • Revolts in Vienna and Lombardy (Italian provinces)
    • Austrian army used to suppress uprisings
  • March 1848 - Hungarian parliament – adopted March Laws giving Hungary virtual autonomy
    • Removed labor tax for the peasantry
slide6

Ferdinand – gave in to the demands of the liberals in Vienna and Budapest

    • Austrian army occupied in Italian provinces
  • Prague (Bohemia) – Czechs demanded constitution allowing for greater autonomy – like Hungary
    • Pan Slav Congress called to discuss political position of Slavic people in Austrian Empire
slide7

Vienna, Austria – new constitution adopted

    • Peasant labor tax removed
  • Austrian army continued to remain loyal to royal family
  • Austrian army used to put down rebellion in Prague
    • Pan Slav Congress dissolved
  • Oct 1848 – army took back Vienna and ended liberal rebellion
  • Dec 1848 – Ferdinand abdicated throne in favor of Francis Joseph (son)
    • More conservative
slide8

January 1849 – Austrian army invaded Hungary to end rebellion

    • Defeated
  • Tsar Nicholas I of Russia – invaded Hungary in support of Austria and to prevent rebellion in Poland
    • Hungarian forces defeated
  • Francis Joseph – more autocratic over empire once rebellions defeated to secure power
    • Liberalism = revolution
    • Austrian Constitutional Assembly dissolved and the draft constitution destroyed
the frankfurt parliament
The Frankfurt Parliament
  • Revolutions occurred in most German states
  • Liberal ministers occupied positions of power in most German state govts
  • Elections called for an All German National Parliament
    • Elected by universal manhood suffrage
    • Inspired by nationalism movement in Europe
    • Wanted to discuss German unification
  • May 1848 – 830 elected delegates met at Frankfurt (Free City)
    • Liberal university educated professional – professors, doctors, lawyers
slide10

Drafted the Fundamental Rights of German People – statement of the liberal rights of German citizens

    • Free speech, press, religion
  • March 1849 – Drafted constitution for new unified Germany
  • Debate over unification
    • Kleindeutsch – “Small Germany” – Prussia and smaller German states
    • Grossdeutsch – “Large Germany” – Include Austria but not non-German Austrian territory
  • Francis Joseph I not interested in joining – removed delegates
slide11

Kleindeutsch faction gained momentum after removal of Austrian delegates

    • Remaining delegates offer Crown of Germany to Frederick of Prussia
    • Refused
  • Prussian delegates withdrawn
  • Frankfurt Parliament moved to Stuttgart
  • Prussia used army to suppress uprisings in Saxony
  • June 1849 – FP disbanded – no support from Prussia and Austria
austria vs prussia
Austria vs. Prussia
  • 1849-1850
  • 1849 – King Frederick William IV – began to lobby other German states to create a formal union of German states with the exclusion of Austria
    • Make the Zollverein a political union in addition to an economic union (the Erfurt Union)
  • 1850 – Austria opposed Prussia’s attempt at breaking up the German Confederation
    • Threatened the use of force
    • Able to threaten Prussia after internal rebellions dealt with
  • Nov. 1850 – Agreement of Olmütz(“the Humiliation of Olmütz)
    • Prussia stopped attempting to reorganize the German States in the Erfurt Union – Prussian nationalists hated it
  • German Confederation re-established with Austria recognized as the primary member