Modernism Kristian Jennes Lilia Vazquez Mckenzie Wisdom
mod·ern·ism • noun \ˈmä-dər-ˌni-zəm\ : a style of art, architecture, literature, etc., that uses ideas and methods which are very different from those used in the past • In simple and more in depth form: a breakthrough of individualism and progress while moving away from traditional structure
Victorian Era 1830- 1900 Modernism 1900-1940 “ I am prisoner of a gaudy and unlivable present, where all forms of human society have reached an extreme of their cycle and there is no imagining what new forms they may assume.” – Italo Calvino Lost of Identity.. Who am I? • Traditional codes, social structure, and religious beliefs • People knew who and what they were suppose to be
Reason for Reform World War 1 Industrial Capitalism Bloomsbury Group and Other Philosophers
Doubt • Society began to question traditional institutions that led to blood shed and no progress. • Uncertainty in Religion • Ex-patriots emerged due to WWI • “The Sun also Rises” by Ernest Hemingway and The Lost Generation there was nothing I could do about it, at least for a while, and maybe never, but that anyway it was a grand religion, and I only wished I felt religious and maybe I would the next time...."
Individualism Society sought to live accordingly to their own respective attitudes and outlooks Lady Brett Ashley from “The Sun Also Rises” Liberal Social Values Bloomsbury Group
Bloomsbury Group Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, Hemmingway, Gertrude Stein, E.M. Foster, and more Expatriates “If I had to choose between betraying my country and betraying my best fiend , I hope I should have the guts to betray my country”- E.M. Foster Motives and Way of Thinking To pursuit knowledge while gaining insight on the creation and enjoyment of an aesthetic experience Leaders of Modernist movement Wrote about the experiences of everyday life and focused on individual phycology Writing style Challenged social conventions Gaps in writing The Waste Land Heart of Darkness
Stream of Consciousness Translating as well as possible the strange pathways of the human mind. • The psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud • The idea that people’s unconscious desires for sex and money were prevalent in their unconscious mind. • Connections to literature: • Idea of “unreliable narrator” (replaced the omniscent, trustworthy narrator) • Self-inwardness seen in topics explored • Inner monologue • Loss of traditional structure (free verse) • Disconnected images (embraced taboo topics of the time period)
Further Down the Stream • James Joyce- Ulysses: events are really the happenings of the mind • “Rather than looking out into the world, the great novelists of the early twentieth century surveyed the inner space of the human mind” (Rahn 2).
The “Self-Taught Poet” The “aloof artist” deserted previous taught ways of writing and delved into one’s own style. • Writers produced nothing of commercial value for the market. • Connections to literature: • Unafraid of writing about taboo topics • Invented individual poetic rhymes • Coined new words for things with no suitable title • Poets were honest and real
Examples • Gerard Manley Hopkins- poet with no formal training in poetry • “ This model- the self taught artist-hermit who has no desire for public adulation- would become synonymous with the poet in the modern age” (Rahn 2). • Imagists, led by famous poet Ezra Pound, explored this idea by using plain speech, free verse, vivid/ hard imagery, and brief overall meaning.
Change of Art Art replaced religion in providing guidance and insight into the human condition Responsibility of the artists Despair, faithfulness, and a confused sense of identity. Don’t try to understand it, Let it try to understand you” – E.E. Cummings
Experimentation Applied new energy to established forms In Culture In Literature Free Verse and Unrhymed Poetry Irony and Hidden Truths Kate Chopin—Feminism Ezra Pound “Make it New” Imagism • An ambitious, aspirational outlook on contemporary life • Frank Lloyd Wright
Innovation Theories and Technologies furthered progress in lifestyle and literature Industrial Revolution - Discoveries in new technologies led to culture re-defining itself - Combustion engine -Light Bulb -Automobile A New Way of Literature and Thinking Sigmund Freud ‘s Interpretation of Dreams Founding father of psychoanalysis Albert Einstein and his theory of Special Relativity