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STARS Chapter 8 Section 1. What we will talk about today. What color tells us about the temperature of a star How we can identify what a star is made of How a star’s brightness, location, and distance from earth are measured. What are stars?. Stars are huge, bright balls of burning gas .

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what we will talk about today
What we will talk about today
  • What color tells us about the temperature of a star
  • How we can identify what a star is made of
  • How a star’s brightness, location, and distance from earth are measured
what are stars
What are stars?
  • Stars are huge, bright balls of burning gas.
  • Stars are different colors because of their temperatures, and scientists can tell how much heat a star gives off by studying its color.
  • Who has used a


bunsen burner vs candle
Bunsen Burner vs. Candle

What flame is hotter? The flame of the Bunsen burner or the candle?

colors of stars
Colors of Stars
  • A blue flame is much hotter than a yellow one.
  • Stars are similar: blue stars burn hotter than yellow ones.
  • Red stars are coolest.
  • This is Betelguese,

a Red Giant Star

What color is our sun?

what are stars made of
What are stars made of?
  • Stars are made of gas. Hydrogen(H) and helium(He) are the two main elements that make up a star.
  • What is an element?
  • Stars also contain small amounts of other elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Each star is made up of a different mix.
  • To find out what a star is made of scientists study the light from the stars.
what is light
What is light?

Light is actually made up of many colors. These colors are called the spectrum.

  • Many colors make up a spectrum, including **red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.ROY G BIV will help you remember the


Where else have you

seen these colors?


Why do Scientists Study Light?

  • Scientists are able look at light through a machine called a spectrograph to break up a star’s light into a spectrum.
  • Each element has a particular pattern of lines that appear in an emission spectrum. The emission spectrum shows scientists what elements are in the star.
  • What can studying a star’s spectrum tell an astronomer?
another way to describe stars magnitude or brightness
Another way to describe stars: Magnitude or Brightness
  • Scientists give each star a number to show its brightness, or magnitude.
  • The dimmest starshave the largest magnitude numbers.
  • The brightest stars have the smallest magnitude numbers.
quick vocabulary review
Quick Vocabulary Review
  • What does apparent mean?

1)Clearly understood 2)Seeming real or true, but not necessarily so.

  • What does absolute mean?


  • What does actual mean?

Existing in fact

one type of magnitude
One type of magnitude
  • The brightness(or magnitude) of a star as we see it from Earth is the star’s apparent magnitude.*** A bright star can look very dim if it is very far away from Earth. A dim star can appear bright if it is closer to Earth.
  • Where would you see the apparent magnitude of a star?
absolute magnitude
Absolute Magnitude
  • A star’s absolute magnitude is the actual brightness of the star.
  • Astronomers use a star’s apparent magnitude and its distance from earth to calculate its absolute magnitude.****
  • What can we tell about

these stars magnitudes?

what do scientists use to calculate distance to stars
What do scientists use to calculate distance to stars?
  • Because stars are so far away, astronomers use light years to measure the distance from Earth to the stars.
  • A light year is the distance that light travels in one year, or 186,282 miles per second, or 5.88 trillion miles****

This quasar is 10 billion light

years from Earth

motion of the stars
Motion of the Stars

As we stand on Earth and look at the stars, they seem to move. This is because the Earth revolves around the sun and we are on the surface of the Earth as it revolves. This is called stars’

Apparent Motion.

What has moved?

Based on what you

Now know about

Apparent Motion,

What would Actual

Motion be????

measuring the distances of stars with parallax
Measuring the distances of starswith parallax****
  • Parallaxis the object’s apparent shift in motion when viewed from different locations. It is an optical effect.
  • Astronomers can measure parallax and use it to calculate exact distances to stars.
  • Does the man on the right(V2) see the moon as closer or farther away than the man on the left?
  • Where would

someone use


to sum it all up
To sum it all up…….

Why do some stars look different than others?

When we look at a star from Earth, will it look the same in 6 months? Why?