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Sputnik's legacy of rapid advancements in atmospheric research, a personal perspective. Kristina B. Katsaros. Happy Day to All!. Congratulations to our Hosts and the Russian Space Agency on completing 50 years of scientific accomplishments in Space, a golden anniversary!
Kristina B. Katsaros
Congratulations to our Hosts and the Russian Space Agency on completing 50 years of scientific accomplishments in Space,
a golden anniversary!
Kristina B. Katsaros,
who was a fresh, new University of Washington student in 1957, and clearly remembers the day that Sputnik flew into orbit
It weighed 86.3 Kg!
So small but so seffective.
My husband and I watched it streaking by on romantic nights---way back then….everyone was looking for it in the night sky and for the many satellites that followed. It was a thrill.
Then--- the dog, Laika, was launched into space… the possibilities that his event opened up for space travel…
Meetings every 2 years,
Next conference in December of 2008
Please join us in Guangzhou, China !
The South China Sea
Institute of Oceanology is our host.
First circular on the SCSIO web http://www.scsio.cn
Prof. Danling Tang of SCSIO is the contact
My career as a scientist dates from Sputnik and the IGY* . Satellite science has progressed now to a point where we plan Satellite Constellations and have an“Alphabet Soup” of Programs. What a Ride!”
*IGY, International Geophysical Year (1957) now followed by IPY, International Polar Year (2007).
Thanks to Sputnik surprising the world by its early arrival, the U.S. accelerated its space program, launching Vanguard 1 in early 1958—it had actually been planned since 1955 and was part of the IGY activities organized by the International Council of Scientific Unions (IUGG).
Vanguard was followed by the Explorer satellites and the TIROS and NIMBUS series of meteorological research satellites. I used data from both of these.
It has been a privilege and a thrill to be involved and grow up through these changes. There were some advantages in the early days, when research funding was relatively easy to come by. The world of research science seems more complex today.
I thought about this for an op-ed for the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society at the Millennium, which discusses the changes in philosophy which must accompany this change. For instance:
Individual glory, single author bravado, genius no longer to be celebrated so much. Team work is required, particularly between engineers and scientists-- long term planning is required. New types of personalities are needed in this field.
developed by ESA and EUMETSAT.
Spectral radiometer, SEVIRI, will provide data from the surface and the atmosphere every 15 min
Carries a "global"
radiation sensor, GERB A high-tech operational satellite, the new modus
Meteosat Second Generation - Meteosat 8 & 9First Color Image - belowWith Rachel Pinker at University of Maryland, will calculate surface radiation budget in the Atlantic-- we are PI's for MSG analysis
the interactions with the intervening atmosphere, its clouds and aerosols.
Laboratory Field Satellite
Theory Programs Measurements
(Liu, Katsaros, BusingerJ. Atmospheric Sci, 1979 )
Building on what we learned about the cool film and the atmospheric molecular layer,
W. Timothy Liu developed a model for his Ph.D. thesis, which has been widely used and extended in the last decade by Fairall et al, based on the TOGA-COARE measurements (alphabet soup!).
The bulk formulas for estimating air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor still needed, even with satellite data. Questions have and are being pursued to this day about effects of waves and swell, wave breaking, currents, and the role of sea spray.
Thesis by Serhad Atakturk gave the relationships for momentum, heat and water vapor flux for a long fetch and pure wind sea.
Still there was emphasis on the effect on surface temperature as seen by infrared sensor.
Breaking waves and capillary waves were measured, effects of surfactants….
Tried many other foolish things…useful!
U.K's C130 research aircraft, or Dumbo for short, in the JASIN Experiment, 1978. In addition,U.S. and German aircraft and several ships and buoys operated under SEASAT and provided “surface truth”---a concept we soon had to abandon!
Rain cells had just been reported by the Cloud Physics group at University of Washinton
First rain cells obtained with SEASAT SMMRThrough 1980s, my group worked on Microwave Radiometer Data; Storm studies
JONSWAP, 1973, waves North Sea
JASIN, 1978, air-sea interaction, Atlantic
MARSEN, 1979, remote sensing North Sea
STREX, 1980, storm experiment N. Pacific
HEXOS, 1984, 1986, evaporation and spray
SWADE, 1991, waves and fluxes
and more….radars used
LHF = ρ.L.CE.U.(qs - qa)
CE is the exchange coefficient calculated from Smith (1988), U is the surface wind speed estimated from merging ERS-2 scatterometer and SSM/I data, qs is
saturated specific humidity calculated from Reynolds SST analysis.
reaching 20m from research platformHumidity Exchange Over the SeaHEXOS-Pilot Experiment, 1984, Main Experiment 1986
COARE-3 - - - COARE 2.5 —
O AGILE Δ CBLAST
X HEXOS ◊ GASEX
SOWEX □ SWADE
CBLAST mean ---
HEXOS mean —
→CE = (1.1 ± 0.07)x10-3 [ ≈ HEXOS CE]
From DeCosmo et al, 1996
→CE independent of wind to 32 m/s
→ High scatter in CE explained by sampling (high z, short legs) →
Expected scatter in <w’q’>:
STD/mean = 6.4 (z/UT)1/2 ≈ 0.5;
[For HEXOS, STD/mean ≈ 0.1]
These satellites measured winds by scatterometer, sea level by altimeter and ocean swell by SAR
We were in charge of the scatterometer data production, and some data from the altimeter, its wind and wave measurements, and the SAR. Also sea ice detection and analysis.
Wonderful young, well trained colleagues, much drama- French style, exciting research and frequent successes;
U.S. connection was very helpful!
Regional and seasonal patterns and variability
Data processed at IFREMER (Bentamy et al, 2003). 15 year record (1992-2007) now available on the web.
AOML specializes in research about hurricanes, global warming, greenhouse gases, coral reefs,
Everglades restoration, environmental topics that support Planet Earth.
Acoustics: rain, wind noises, whale noises…
Dropsonde Winds:Hurricane Floyd (September 14, 1999)
WP-3D reconnaissance aircraft of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
RADARSAT-1 SARimage of sea surface roughness in Hurricane Mitch at category 5 intensity. Honduras is at bottom of picture. It shows convective cells to the North, and signatures of boundary layer rolls.October 27, 1998.work with Paris Vachon of Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Data from Canadian Space Agency, CSA
Much left to do for the next generations.
I have a small hand in the action still on air-sea fluxes via many colleagues including Drennan, Bentamy, Mesta-Nuňez, Pinker Carton and others
University of Maryland, Miami, IFREMER,
Texas A&M at Corpus Christy
It is time to coordinate satellite orbits and data types for proper sampling Slide by W. Timothy Liu of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Californa, showing the improved sampling, if data from future scatterometers are properly staggered to work together. Europe, U.S., China and India will all launch scatterometers. 6-hourly sampling important for monitoring of weather!
Some day...this constellation for the Global Precipitation Mission The Core is a -2-wavelength radar.Prototype for radar is TRMM, 1997--- below rightand many microwave radiometers --- below left