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Sputnik's legacy of rapid advancements in atmospheric research, a personal perspective. Kristina B. Katsaros. Happy Day to All!. Congratulations to our Hosts and the Russian Space Agency on completing 50 years of scientific accomplishments in Space, a golden anniversary!

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sputnik s legacy of rapid advancements in atmospheric research a personal perspective
Sputnik's legacy of rapid advancements in atmospheric research, a personal perspective

Kristina B. Katsaros

happy day to all
Happy Day to All!

Congratulations to our Hosts and the Russian Space Agency on completing 50 years of scientific accomplishments in Space,

a golden anniversary!

Best Wishes


Kristina B. Katsaros,

who was a fresh, new University of Washington student in 1957, and clearly remembers the day that Sputnik flew into orbit

Sputnik 1 (Russian : Спутник-1, Satellite 1)

It weighed 86.3 Kg!

So small but so seffective.

My husband and I watched it streaking by on romantic nights---way back then….everyone was looking for it in the night sky and for the many satellites that followed. It was a thrill.

Then--- the dog, Laika, was launched into space… the possibilities that his event opened up for space travel…


congratlations to space science in the world
  • In Russia since1957, in North America since about 1958, in the rest of Europe with ESA, 1974, and in Asia, South America, Australia, Africa—all around the world.
  • We will learn more about activities at the many space agencies around the world at this conference. It is getting difficult to keep up!
i bring greetings from the pan ocean remote sensing conference association
I bring greetings from the Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference Association

Meetings every 2 years,

since 1992


Next conference in December of 2008

Please join us in Guangzhou, China !

The South China Sea

Institute of Oceanology is our host.

First circular on the SCSIO web http://www.scsio.cn

Prof. Danling Tang of SCSIO is the contact

igy international geophysical year 1957 now followed by ipy international polar year 2007

My career as a scientist dates from Sputnik and the IGY* . Satellite science has progressed now to a point where we plan Satellite Constellations and have an“Alphabet Soup” of Programs. What a Ride!”

*IGY, International Geophysical Year (1957) now followed by IPY, International Polar Year (2007).

some personal observations
Some personal observations
  • The advent of the space age and the competition that followed was valuable to practicing scientists in the U.S.A. as well as in the Soviet Union-- at that time. Competition meant that funding was plentiful and new ideas were appreciated.
  • Admiration for each other’s work may even have eased the cold war …I tend to believe that. There was some early co-opeation in microwave remote sensing, especially in Arctic research.
personal observations continued
Personal observations continued
  • It has been recognized that Science accomplished some valuable back-door diplomacy during the cold-war years.
  • Recently, we have relied on each other for the Space Station maintenance and have all along LEARNED from each other.
  • I fervently wish that we would plan our satellite constellations together with complete confidence and mutual reliance to optimize our scientific enterprise.

Thanks to Sputnik surprising the world by its early arrival, the U.S. accelerated its space program, launching Vanguard 1 in early 1958—it had actually been planned since 1955 and was part of the IGY activities organized by the International Council of Scientific Unions (IUGG).

Vanguard was followed by the Explorer satellites and the TIROS and NIMBUS series of meteorological research satellites. I used data from both of these.

there has been dramatic change in our field of science in this half century
There has been Dramatic Change in our Field of Science in this half century

It has been a privilege and a thrill to be involved and grow up through these changes. There were some advantages in the early days, when research funding was relatively easy to come by. The world of research science seems more complex today.

I thought about this for an op-ed for the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society at the Millennium, which discusses the changes in philosophy which must accompany this change. For instance:

Individual glory, single author bravado, genius no longer to be celebrated so much. Team work is required, particularly between engineers and scientists-- long term planning is required. New types of personalities are needed in this field.

meteosat 8
Meteosat 8

Geostationary satellite

developed by ESA and EUMETSAT.

Spectral radiometer, SEVIRI, will provide data from the surface and the atmosphere every 15 min

Carries a "global"

radiation sensor, GERB A high-tech operational satellite, the new modus



Meteosat Second Generation - Meteosat 8 & 9First Color Image - belowWith Rachel Pinker at University of Maryland, will calculate surface radiation budget in the Atlantic-- we are PI's for MSG analysis

i ll take you on a trip through 50 years of history of my science
I’ll take you on a trip through 50 years of history of my science
  • My field is Air-sea Interaction - focused on the interface, the place where much of what matters to the atmosphere and ocean happens.
  • Electromagnetic signals from a source such as our sun, from a space vehicle (say a radar) or emitted upward, come from the interface or a short distance inside the water.
how signals are used
How signals are used…..
  • To understand satellite data, one must also understand the sea surface and

the interactions with the intervening atmosphere, its clouds and aerosols.

  • Some of our objectives have been to study those latter variables from space. The long-term measurement of ozone over the globe is an important contribution, which has lead to unified action by the nations of the world to reduce (eliminate) use of freons for refrigeration.
The Trident symbolizes my 3-pronged workThe handle represents the work of students, colleagues, assistants by the hundreds!

Laboratory Field Satellite

Theory Programs Measurements

Measurements of water surface temperatures in a bucket on the lawn in the night (Katsaros and Buettner, 1969)
Laboratory set-up.Resistance film probe and surface capacitance sensor, vertical and horizontal traverses….
Convection in fresh (top) and salt water bottom)cm scale –Konstantin Fedorov visited my laboratory in 1970’s
"Bulk Parameterization of Air-Sea Exchanges of Heat and Water Vapor Including the Molecular Constraints at the Interface."

(Liu, Katsaros, BusingerJ. Atmospheric Sci, 1979 )

Building on what we learned about the cool film and the atmospheric molecular layer,

W. Timothy Liu developed a model for his Ph.D. thesis, which has been widely used and extended in the last decade by Fairall et al, based on the TOGA-COARE measurements (alphabet soup!).

The bulk formulas for estimating air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor still needed, even with satellite data. Questions have and are being pursued to this day about effects of waves and swell, wave breaking, currents, and the role of sea spray.

lake washington station a great place to test things
Lake Washington Station…a great place to test things

Thesis by Serhad Atakturk gave the relationships for momentum, heat and water vapor flux for a long fetch and pure wind sea.

Still there was emphasis on the effect on surface temperature as seen by infrared sensor.

Breaking waves and capillary waves were measured, effects of surfactants….

Tried many other foolish things…useful!

SeaSat was launched in 1978. The U.S. proposed but was not to have another scatterometer in space until 1996.
many new types of data had to be verified and understood
Many new types of data-had to be verified and understood.
  • Workshops were organized, we poured over large computer print-outs, shook our heads, debated.
  • Gathered comparison data
  • For SEASAT there was the Joint Air-Sea Interaction, JASIN, experiment in the North Sea, summer of 1978.

U.K's C130 research aircraft, or Dumbo for short, in the JASIN Experiment, 1978. In addition,U.S. and German aircraft and several ships and buoys operated under SEASAT and provided “surface truth”---a concept we soon had to abandon!

through 1980s my group worked on microwave radiometer data storm studies
Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on SeaSat and Nimbus VII and later SSM/I on Defense Satellites, (at least 16 since 1987)

Rain cells had just been reported by the Cloud Physics group at University of Washinton

First rain cells obtained with SEASAT SMMR

Through 1980s, my group worked on Microwave Radiometer Data; Storm studies
a series of field programs
A Series of Field Programs

JONSWAP, 1973, waves North Sea

JASIN, 1978, air-sea interaction, Atlantic

MARSEN, 1979, remote sensing North Sea

STREX, 1980, storm experiment N. Pacific

HEXOS, 1984, 1986, evaporation and spray

SWADE, 1991, waves and fluxes

and more….radars used

latent heat flux lhf bulk formula
Latent Heat Flux, (LHF) bulk formula

LHF = ρ.L.CE.U.(qs - qa)

CE is the exchange coefficient calculated from Smith (1988), U is the surface wind speed estimated from merging ERS-2 scatterometer and SSM/I data, qs is

saturated specific humidity calculated from Reynolds SST analysis.


Dalton number at high winds

COARE-3 - - - COARE 2.5 —




CBLAST mean ---

HEXOS mean —

→CE = (1.1 ± 0.07)x10-3 [ ≈ HEXOS CE]

From DeCosmo et al, 1996

→CE independent of wind to 32 m/s

→ High scatter in CE explained by sampling (high z, short legs) →

Expected scatter in <w’q’>:

STD/mean = 6.4 (z/UT)1/2 ≈ 0.5;

[For HEXOS, STD/mean ≈ 0.1]

ifremer campus institut francais de recherche pour l exploitation de la mer my term there 1992 1997
IFREMER Campus-Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la MerMy term there :1992-1997
Department of Oceanography from Space, DOS, at IFREMER, France, handled theEuropean Remote Sensing Satellites 1 and 2

These satellites measured winds by scatterometer, sea level by altimeter and ocean swell by SAR

We were in charge of the scatterometer data production, and some data from the altimeter, its wind and wave measurements, and the SAR. Also sea ice detection and analysis.

Wonderful young, well trained colleagues, much drama- French style, exciting research and frequent successes;

U.S. connection was very helpful!

Flux Results from IFREMER (from Katsaros et al, 2003)(Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer)

Regional and seasonal patterns and variability

Data processed at IFREMER (Bentamy et al, 2003). 15 year record (1992-2007) now available on the web.

atlantic oceanographic and meteorological laboratory a noaa science lab on virginia key
Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological LaboratoryA NOAA science lab on Virginia Key

AOML specializes in research about hurricanes, global warming, greenhouse gases, coral reefs,

Climate change--oceanography;

Everglades restoration, environmental topics that support Planet Earth.

Acoustics: rain, wind noises, whale noises…

hurricane research
Hurricane Research

Dropsonde Winds:Hurricane Floyd (September 14, 1999)

  • Good for validation of Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide wind fields, scatterometer, models…
    • Flight level winds;
    • Dropsondes;
    • Surface winds (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer).

WP-3D reconnaissance aircraft of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

canadian hurricane watch program uh truth
Canadian Hurricane Watch Program--uh?? TRUTH!
  • RADARSAT has a Synthetic Aperture Radar that can measure surface wind (using scatterometer algorithm)
  • 100m resolution in a 400 km swath
  • Caught 4 hurricanes first year--sort of
  • Paris Vachon and I agreed that one needed the "finger on the button" to catch one.(About 24 hour advance planning.)

RADARSAT-1 SARimage of sea surface roughness in Hurricane Mitch at category 5 intensity. Honduras is at bottom of picture. It shows convective cells to the North, and signatures of boundary layer rolls.October 27, 1998.work with Paris Vachon of Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Data from Canadian Space Agency, CSA

the u s gets some scatterometers nscat with japan 1996 and quikscat since 1998 and going
The U.S. gets some scatterometers! NSCAT with Japan, 1996, and Quikscat, since 1998 and going….
hurricane talk tomorrow with more examples
Hurricane Talk Tomorrowwith more examples
  • Satellites extremely important for
  • monitoring these extreme events that begin over the ocean.
what s next
What's Next?

Much left to do for the next generations.

I have a small hand in the action still on air-sea fluxes via many colleagues including Drennan, Bentamy, Mesta-Nuňez, Pinker Carton and others

University of Maryland, Miami, IFREMER,

Texas A&M at Corpus Christy


It is time to coordinate satellite orbits and data types for proper sampling Slide by W. Timothy Liu of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Californa, showing the improved sampling, if data from future scatterometers are properly staggered to work together. Europe, U.S., China and India will all launch scatterometers. 6-hourly sampling important for monitoring of weather!


Some day...this constellation for the Global Precipitation Mission The Core is a -2-wavelength radar.Prototype for radar is TRMM, 1997--- below rightand many microwave radiometers --- below left