Respiratory System Alec Sequeira Jared Dicioco Lorenzo Macias Colin Fox Zachary Christian
Gills • External gills are found in fishes and amphibian larvae • Gill increase the respiratory surface area for gas exchange; however, they require aqueous environment • Branchial chambers protect gills of some vertebrates • Some aquatic invertebrates have branchial chambers in which oxygenated water is pumped passed stationary gills like mollusks • Gills of bony fishes are covered by the operculum • In bony fishes diffusion of gasses are maximized by countercurrent exchange, in which blood in gills flows in a direction opposite the flow of water over the gills
Cutaneous Respiration - Cutaneous respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide across the skin -Many amphibians and a couple reptiles use cutaneous respiration for gas exchange -Some terrestrial amphibians rely on cutaneous respiration exclusively - Turtles and other reptiles use cutaneous respiration to stay submerged for long periods of time
Tracheal Systems -Tracheae and tracheoles are a series of small tubes -Spiracles connect them to the outside environment to carry air to a series of cells - The ability to open and close the spiracles allowed arthropods to invade the land
Lungs Despite high efficiency of gills, they were replaced by lungs in terrestrial animals for two important reasons: -Air is less supportive than water -Trachea and lungs remain open because body itself provides support -Water evaporates -Gills would provide an enormous surface area for water loss Minimizes evaporation by advancing air through a branched tubular passage Unlike one way flow of water that is effective in gills, gases move in and out of lungs by way of same airway passages, which is a two way flow system
True Or False/MC • False.While gills use a one way flow system of water, lungs use a less-efficient system of gases that move in and out of the lungs by way of the same of the same airway passages • True. Gills uncrease the surface area for gas exchange. • True. Cutaneous respiration exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide. • False. Tracheae and tracheoles are a series of big tubes. • True. Tracheae and tracheoles are connected to the outside environment by spiracles • Which are part of the respiratory system? Gills, Cutaneous Respiration, Trachael System, Lungs, All of the above.