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Chapter 1 Chemistry Basics. Chemistry. 1.1. The Galileo spacecraft was placed in orbit around Jupiter to collect data about the planet and its moons. Chemistry helped scientists to study the geology of distant objects in the solar system. 1.1. Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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chemistry
Chemistry

1.1

  • The Galileo spacecraft was placed in orbit around Jupiter to collect data about the planet and its moons. Chemistry helped scientists to study the geology of distant objects in the solar system.
pure and applied chemistry

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Pure and Applied Chemistry
    • How are pure and applied chemistry related?
pure and applied chemistry1

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Pure chemistry is the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake.
  • Applied chemistry is research that is directed toward a practical goal or application.
pure and applied chemistry2

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Pure research can lead directly to an application, but an application can exist before research is done to explain how it works.
pure and applied chemistry3

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Nylon
    • In the early 1930’s, Wallace Carothers produced nylon while researching cotton and silk.
    • A team of scientists and engineers applied Carothers’s research to the commercial production of nylon.
pure and applied chemistry4

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Aspirin
    • Long before researchers figured out how aspirin works, people used it to relieve pain, and doctors prescribed it for patients who were at risk for a heart attack.
    • In 1971, it was discovered that aspirin can block the production of a group of chemicals that cause pain and lead to the formation of blood clots. This is an example of pure research.
pure and applied chemistry5

1.1

Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Technology
    • Technology is the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired.
      • Technology allows humans to do some things more quickly or with less effort.
      • There are debates about the risks and benefits of technology.
what is chemistry

1.1

What Is Chemistry?
  • What Is Chemistry?
    • Why is the scope of chemistry so vast?
what is chemistry1

1.1

What Is Chemistry?
  • Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
  • Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
what is chemistry2

1.1

What Is Chemistry?
  • Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events.
areas of study

1.1

Areas of Study
  • Areas of Study
    • What are five traditional areas of study in chemistry?
areas of study1

1.1

Areas of Study
  • Five traditional areas of study are
    • organic chemistry
    • inorganic chemistry
    • biochemistry
    • analytical chemistry
    • physical chemistry
slide14

1.1

Areas of Study

Organic chemistry is defined as the study of all chemicals containing carbon.

slide15

1.1

Areas of Study

Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon.

slide16

1.1

Areas of Study

The study of processes that take place in organisms is biochemistry.

slide17

1.1

Areas of Study

Analytical chemistry is the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter.

slide18

1.1

Areas of Study

Physical chemistry is the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change.

why study chemistry

1.1

Why Study Chemistry?
  • Why Study Chemistry?
    • What are three general reasons to study chemistry?
why study chemistry1

1.1

Why Study Chemistry?
  • Chemistry can be useful in explaining the natural world, preparing people for career opportunities, and producing informed citizens.
why study chemistry2

1.1

Why Study Chemistry?
  • Explaining the Natural World
    • Chemistry can help you satisfy your natural desire to understand how things work.
why study chemistry3

1.1

Why Study Chemistry?
  • Preparing For a Career
    • Many careers require knowledge of chemistry. A photographer uses chemical processes to control the development of photographs in a darkroom.
why study chemistry4

1.1

Why Study Chemistry?
  • Being an Informed Citizen
    • Knowledge of chemistry and other sciences can help you evaluate the data presented, arrive at an informed opinion, and take appropriate action.
1 1 section quiz1
1.1 Section Quiz
  • 1. Which of these traditional areas of study mostly involve compounds containing carbon?
  • (1) organic chemistry
  • (2) inorganic chemistry
  • (3) biochemistry
    • (1) and (2)
    • (1) and (3)
    • (2) and (3)
    • (1), (2), and (3)
1 1 section quiz2
1.1 Section Quiz
  • 2. Which phrase best describes applied chemistry?
    • the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake
    • research that answers a general question
    • addresses fundamental aspects of a question
    • research directed toward a practical goal
1 1 section quiz3
1.1 Section Quiz
  • 3. Informed citizens are most likely to
    • provide funds for scientific research.
    • determine which areas of research are valid.
    • decide who is qualified to do research.
    • influence the development of technology.
thinking like a scientist

1.3

Thinking Like a Scientist
  • In 1928, Alexander Fleming noticed that bacteria he was studying did not grow in the presence of a yellow-green mold. In 1945, Fleming shared a Nobel Prize for Medicine with Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, who led the team that isolated penicillin.
alchemy

1.3

Alchemy
  • Alchemy
    • How did alchemy lay the groundwork for chemistry?
alchemy1

1.3

Alchemy
  • Alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals.
alchemy2

1.3

Alchemy
  • Alchemists developed processes for separating mixtures and purifying chemicals. They designed equipment that is still in use today including beakers, flasks, tongs, funnels, and the mortar and pestle.

Mortar and Pestle

an experimental approach to science

1.3

An Experimental Approach to Science
  • An Experimental Approach to Science
    • How did Lavoisier help to transform chemistry?
an experimental approach to science1

1.3

An Experimental Approach to Science
  • Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today.
an experimental approach to science2

1.3

An Experimental Approach to Science
  • Lavoisier designed a balance that could measure mass to the nearest 0.0005 gram. He also showed that oxygen is required for a material to burn.

Reconstruction of Lavoisier’s Laboratory

the scientific method

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • The Scientific Method
    • What are the steps in the scientific method?
the scientific method1

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem.
    • Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories.
the scientific method2

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • Making Observations
    • When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation.
    • Suppose you try to turn on a flashlight and it does not light. An observation can lead to a question: What’s wrong with the flashlight?
the scientific method3

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • Testing Hypotheses
    • A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation.
    • You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. You can test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. If the flashlight lights, you can be fairly certain that your hypothesis is true.
the scientific method4

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables, or factors that can change.
    • The variable that you change during an experiment is the manipulated variable, or independent variable.
    • The variable that is observed during the experiment is the responding variable, or dependent variable.
the scientific method5

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • Developing Theories
    • Once a hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may become a theory.
      • A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations.
      • A theory may need to be changed at some point in the future to explain new observations or experimental results.
the scientific method6

1.3

The Scientific Method
  • Scientific Laws
    • A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments.
    • A scientific law doesn’t try to explain the relationship it describes. That explanation requires a theory.
the scientific method7

1.3

The Scientific Method

Steps in the Scientific Method

collaboration and communication

1.3

Collaboration and Communication
  • Collaboration and Communication
    • What role do collaboration and communication play in science?
collaboration and communication1

1.3

Collaboration and Communication
  • No matter how talented the players on a team, one player cannot ensure victory for the team. Individuals must collaborate, or work together, for the good of the team.
    • When scientists collaborate and communicate, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.
collaboration and communication2

1.3

Collaboration and Communication
  • Collaboration
    • Scientists choose to collaborate for different reasons.
      • Some research problems are so complex that no one person could have all of the knowledge, skills, and resources to solve the problem.
      • Scientists might conduct research for an industry in exchange for equipment and the time to do the research.
collaboration and communication3

1.3

Collaboration and Communication
  • Collaboration isn’t always a smooth process. You will likely work on a team in the laboratory. If so, you may face some challenges. But you can also experience the benefits of collaboration.
collaboration and communication4

1.3

Collaboration and Communication
  • Communication
    • Scientists communicate face to face, by e-mail, by phone, and at international conferences.
    • Scientists publish their results in scientific journals. Articles are published only after being reviewed by experts in the author’s field.
1 3 section quiz
1.3 Section Quiz.
  • 1. Lavoisier is credited with transforming chemistry from a science of observation to a science of
    • speculation.
    • measurement.
    • hypotheses.
    • theories.
1 3 section quiz1
1.3 Section Quiz.
  • 2. A hypothesis is
    • information obtained from an experiment.
    • a proposed explanation for observations.
    • a concise statement that summarizes the results of many of experiments.
    • a thoroughly tested explaination for a broad set of observations.
1 3 section quiz2
1.3 Section Quiz.
  • 3. Why are articles in scientific journals the most reliable source of information about new scientific discoveries?
    • The articles are reviewed by experts in the author's field.
    • Any article that is submitted is published.
    • Everyone has access to the information.
    • The articles are short and easy to read.