India Today. India Today. India's population consists of approximately 1.17 billion people and makes up approximately one-sixth of the world's population. India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented.
India Today India's population consists of approximately 1.17 billion people and makes up approximately one-sixth of the world's population. India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented. Religion in India is as diverse as its geography and culture. In India, religion and culture play a very important role. Religion is an essential part of most Indian life. Agriculture is one of the most important ways of earning a living Almost two-thirds of the population practices subsistence farming.( grow enough to feed your family) Indian economy has been on the rise for the past few years with effects of globalization (one world market) , privatization ( people not businesses own business for profit) and liberalization being seen. This has opened up many new business opportunities in India for foreign and multinational companies.
Government & Economy Today India’s government operates as a federal republic with a president, VP, Prime Minister and council. Citizens elect officials to make decisions for them. Power is divided between the national and state governments. (What is that called? Federation!) India has a mixed economy. The government controls some industries, but today many are owned by individuals. India’s economy has grown and it is becoming a major player in world trade. Unitary Confederation Federal
Basic Facts Second largest population in the world Infant mortality rate 30.15 Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid Literacy rate: total population: 61%,male: 73.4%,female: 47.8% GDP 3.304 trillion dollars GDP per capita 2,900 Labor :agriculture: 60%, industry: 12%, services: 28% 25% of the population lives below the poverty level Only 29% of the population lives in cities.
India’s Geography Desert Plateau Ranges
India’s Climate versus Population Population Climate
What can we deduct from the basic facts? People??? Country???
EQ’s … What impact did Arabs have on India? What impact did the Mughal Empire have on India? What impact did the British have on India? Who was Mohandas Gandhi and why is he important to India? How did India gain independence? Why was Pakistan established? What is India like?
A quick tour of India’s modern history
Quick history of India 8th Century 1526 - 1707 Arabs arrive What do you think they might bring to India? Mughal Empire 1st emperor Barbur Contributions – new trade routes – via land and water Islam
Akbar 3rd emperor of Mughal Empire Lived in peace because he included both Hindus and Muslims in government Taxed people according to value of land – thus poor not taxed as heavily as rich Strong supporter of the arts; therefore, arts flourished during his reign Had his life story told in words and pictures in the Akbarnamaor The Memoirs of Akbar.
The British arrive! 1600’s 1796 1818 British trade with Mughals in India British companies set up factories and trading centers What might this lead to? British take control of Sri Lanka and the Maldives Indians agreed to be ruled by British
The British Way Britain brings England to India British army, navy, merchants, and Christian missionaries New technology for railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and new methods of irrigation The British legal system British schools And made English the official language!
After World War I, Indians begin thinking about independence. 1885 – Indian National Congress formed for Indians 1906 – Muslim League formed for Muslims in India To add, Indians had a great leader in Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi Born in India in 1869 Witnessed the discrimination of Indians by the British Studied law in England
Spent the rest of his life working for justice for the Indian people and independence for India Believed – Indians should be treated equally Women should have same freedoms as men Hindus and Muslims should find peaceful ways to solve problems
Under his leadership, he encouraged nonviolence to resist British in order to bring about change Hunger strikes Organized marches Organized labor strikes Let’s look at one of Gandhi’s organized marches…
The Salt March
British had a law … it was illegal for anyone but British to collect, produce, and sell salt. However, salt was invaluable to the people of India so they had to comply with this law. Salt was in great supply so Indians could easily collect the salt for free; however, this was a criminal offense. Therefore, Gandhi chose salt as the motive for civil disobedience. Remember … what is civil disobedience? (The decision to break specific laws because they are unjust in an attempt to change policy) In 1930, Gandhi, with 78 others, marched 241 miles in 24 days on a non-violent march protesting the British Salt Tax.
Gandhi picked up a tiny lump of salt, breaking the law. The Salt March started a series of protests. Within a month, Gandhi was arrested and thrown in a prison already full of fellow protestors. The world embraced Gandhi and his followers and their civil disobedience, eventually enabling India to gain their freedom from Britain.
Who do you know about that might follow the examples of Gandhi? Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King
Examples of the wisdom of Gandhi What do you think these sayings mean? Would you agree with the wisdom of Gandhi?
Eventually, India’s Independence Eventually British realized they would have to leave India; however, there remained a problem… Indian National Congress and Muslim League disagreed about the new government of India Indian National Congress Muslim League
Solution – divide India India for the Hindus Pakistan for the Muslims The two countries were formed and granted independence in 1947!
The dispute over Kashmir Since the independence of both India and Pakistan in 1947, both nations have claimed the area of Kashmir, mainly because of its water resources. To date, a resolution has yet to be reached! India claims the region but Pakistan claims the area is a disputed territory.There has been much fighting over the issue.
Sri Lanka and the Maldives followed India’s example – Sri Lanka became independent in 1948 - the Maldives in 1965
Indira GandhiIndia’s first woman prime minister1966 For a country that had traditionally held women in positions subservient to men, becoming the country’s first woman prime minister was a huge milestone for the country, as well as an inspiration to women around the world. How does this compare with the US?
You cannot tour India without seeing the great… TajMahal Built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan for his wife, this white marble building is India’s most famous building and an excellent example of Islamic architecture. Take a virtual tour - http://www.taj-mahal.net/index.htm
Let’s look at what India is like …
1.5% Buddhist 2% Christians 80% Hindus
What is the Difference? Ethnic Groups Religion Religion? Ethnic Group?
India is the world’s 2nd most populous country, second to China. Millions
Being the 2nd most populous country in the world, how do you think their literacy rate might compare with other countries?
Literacy Rate of India As compared to other countries Percentage of population As high as 90% in some urban areas
Being the world’s 2nd most populous country, what problems might India be facing? Millions
POVERTY & OVER-POPULATION
Environmental problems from overpopulation, industries, and lack of control by government … Includes water pollution …
… air pollution
Pollution In India Today Air pollution-500,000 Indian’s die each year due to pollution. What are the main causes? What can you think of? Ganges –the Ganges, the holiest of all rivers in India is in terrible danger. What practices in India would NEVER be allowed in the U.S.? How has the growing industrial economy influenced this?
Indian culture and traditions
Greetings Folded hands show respect How does this compare to other cultural greetings you know of? Do you think your cultural greeting shows respect?
In India, marriage is seen as an institution where not two people but two families get united. So, it always calls for celebrations full of music and dance. In India the bride wears red!
Henna Usually applied to a bride’s hand and feet the night before her wedding. This is not a permanent tattoo, but it will last for several days. Relatives of the bride will apply the design. It usually takes up to eight hours!
Flower garlands Indians welcome others with garlands of flowers – also marriage ritual where the groom and bride exchange flower garlands – also offer flower garlands to gods.
How does this compare to other cultural weddings you know of?
BindiA bindi is a mark worn by young girls and women. Bindi is derived from Bindu, the Sanskrit word for dot. It is usually a red dot which is worn by women between their eyebrows on their forehead. Considered a symbol of Goddess Parvati, a bindi signifies female energy and is believed to protect women and their husbands. Traditionally a symbol of marriage, it is also worn today by unmarried women.
Tilak is a mark on the forehead. It can be put in many forms as a sign of blessing and greeting . The Tilak is applied on the spot between the brows which is considered the seat of wisdom and mental concentration, and is very important for worship. It also indicates the point at which the spiritual eye opens. All thoughts and actions are said to be governed by this spot. Putting of the colored mark symbolizes the quest for the 'opening' of the third eye.
So, let’s review … What impact did Arabs have on India? What impact did the Mughal Empire have on India? What impact did the British have on India? Who was Mohandas Gandhi and why is he important to India? How did India gain independence? Why was Pakistan established? What is India like?
Ticket out the door … Name 1 person who was influenced by Gandhi and followed his example. Name 2 other continents that Britain had colonies on at one time. List 3 things you learned about India.
Words, people, and places to know… Gandhi Mughal Empire Akbar Indian National Congress Muslim League Pakistan Kashmir Disputed territory Indira Gandhi Taj Mahal
Words, people, and places to know… Mohandas Gandhi – great independence leader of India – taught non-violent resistance to gain independence from Britain Mughal Empire – an empire, lasting from 1526-1707, that covered most of the India subcontinent Akbar – 3rd Mughal emperor of India – included both Hindus and Muslims in government Indian National Congress – organization formed by Indian Hindus – worked to gain independence from Britain Muslim League – organized formed by Indian Muslims – worked to gain independence from Britain
Words, people, and places to know… Pakistan – country created for Indian Muslims when British granted independence to India in 1947 Kashmir – disputed territory between Pakistan and India Disputed territory – disagreement over the possession/control of land by two or more countries Indira Gandhi – 1st woman prime minister of India Taj Mahal – famous white marble in India – built by Mughal emperor for his wife – excellent example of Islamic architecture