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Chapter Summary 1. Business -> Cash flow forecast -> Purpose, Inflows/Outflows Household -> Budget -> Purpose, Inflows/Outflows 2. Sources of Finance Short , Medium, Long 3. Spreadsheets – definition & advantages 4. Qualifying for a Loan – Character, Capacity, Collateral and Credit Rating

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Chapter 13 – Finance – Q6 long Q’s, ABQ, Overlap with “Expansion” + Short Questions

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chapter 13 finance q6 long q s abq overlap with expansion short questions
Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Chapter Summary

1. Business -> Cash flow forecast -> Purpose, Inflows/Outflows

Household -> Budget -> Purpose, Inflows/Outflows

2. Sources of Finance

Short , Medium, Long

3. Spreadsheets – definition & advantages

4. Qualifying for a Loan – Character, Capacity, Collateral and Credit Rating

5. Choosing a Source of Finance – Cost, Purpose, Security, Tax Implications, Control

6. Bank Current Account Services – Cheque, Standing Order, DD, Paypath, ATM, Laser cards, Bank Statements

7. Similarities and differences between managing household and business finance.

  • Purpose of a CFF
  • Assists financial planning: It identifies when a business might find itself facing a cash flow problem. It identifies times of high expenditure and shortages so that finance can be arranged to deal with the deficit.
  • It identifies future cash surpluses so that the business can make plans to invest this extra money.
  • Financial control: Comparing figures in the cff with the actual receipts and payments figures allows the business to see if it is on target with its cash flow projections aiding financial control.
  • It shows future cash inflows and outflows their sources and timing, which assists in the decision-making process.
  • Loan Requirements: A cff is vital for a business starting up and is essential if making an application for a loan to show that repayments can be made.
Chapter 13 – Finance – Q6 long Q’s, ABQ, Overlap with “Expansion” + Short Questions
business cash inflows outflows
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessBusiness cash inflows/outflows
  • Business Cash Inflows
  • Cash Sales
  • Receipts from debtors
  • Interest
  • Grants
  • Share Capital
  • Sale of Assets
  • Tax Refund
  • Business Cash Outflows
  • Purchase of assets
  • Purchases of goods
  • Payments to creditors
  • Payments of taxes
  • Payment of expenses
  • Paying dividends to shareholders

(C) “Cash Flow is the lifeblood of any business and its management is critical to business


In September 2008, Buttercup Garden Centre prepared the following Cash Flow Forecast.

Cash Flow Forecast of Buttercup Garden Centre – October to December 2008

October November December Total

€ € €


Cash Sales 12,500 9,500 10,000 32,000

Credit Sales 2,000 1,500 3,500 7,000

Total Receipts 14,500 11,000 13,500 39,000


Cash Purchases 1,000 2,500 4,000 7,500

Credit Purchases 5,000 2,000 1,000 8,000

Wages 6,000 6,000 7,500 19,500

Equipment 12,000 - - 12,000

Total Payments 24,000 10,500 12,500 47,000

Net Cash (9,500) 500 1,000 (8,000)

Opening Cash 3,000 (6,500) (6,000) 3000

Closing Cash (6,500) (6,000) (5,000) (5,000)

(i) Explain the benefits to Buttercup Garden Centre of preparing a Cash Flow Forecast.

(ii) Based on the information provided above, outline how Buttercup Garden Centre could

improve the Cash Flow position of its business.

(20 marks)

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

(B) Balden Ltd prepared the following cash flow forecast:

2007 July August September Total

Receipts 70,000 55,000 80,000 205,000

Payments 80,000 45,000 55,000 180,000

Net Cash (10,000) 10,000 25,000 25,000

Opening Cash 3,000 (7,000) 3,000 3,000

Closing Cash (7,000) 3,000 28,000 28,000

(i) Why would this cash flow forecast be prepared by Balden Ltd?

(ii) How might management deal with the financial issue highlighted in this forecast?

(20 marks)

2007 Q6

2002 q5

The Business Cash Flow Forecast of Irish Garden Furniture Ltd. is set out below:

July August September Total

  • Receipts; 16,000 15,750 14,850 46,600
  • Payments: 28,000 13,000 24,500 65,500
  • Net Cash: (12,000) 2750 (9650) (18,900)
  • Opening Cash: 8500 (3500) (750) 8500
  • Closing Cash: (3,500) (750) (10,400) (10,400)
  • (i) Outline two reasons why Irish Garden Furniture Ltd. prepared the above CFF
  • (ii) Analyse the CFF. Explain, and offer solutions to, any two problems you think the business may have. (20 marks).

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

2002 Q5
Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Household Inflows/Outflows

Purpose of a Budget

  • Inflows
  • Wages/salaries
  • Child Benefit
  • Social Welfare Payments
  • Tax Rebate
  • Loans
  • Outflows
  • Fixed expenditure (mortgage/rent)
  • Irregular expenditure (tel/esb)
  • Discretionary Expenditure (holidays/entertainment).
  • Identifies times of shortage: gives the family time to arrange a bank overdraft so bills can be paid.
  • Identifies times when there will be a surplus: family could invest this money or put it towards a big expense, e.g. home improvements.
  • Highlights areas of overspending: assists a family when they have to cutback. E.g. if electricity bill is high maybe change company.
  • Loan application: shows to the bank they have good planning skills and that finances are properly managed.
sources of finance short term
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessSources of Finance: Short term

Short term finance is for less than one year and is used to finance short term assets, such as stock and pay expenses.

short term finances
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessShort term Finances
  • Bank overdraft:
  • A short term loan given to current account holders designed to meet short term expenditure needs. The account holder is given permission to withdraw more than the amount in the account, up to a specified amount. Security is not usually required. Interest is calculated on a daily basis on the overdrawn balance.
  • Creditors: Suppliers give an agreed period of credit to their customers, who then sell the goods and services and have use of the money until the invoice has to be paid. No interest is charged and no security is required. However, if the invoice is not paid on time discounts may be lost.
  • Factoring: the business sells its debtors to a bank for cash. The business gets the money up front from the bank. In some cases, factoring with recourse, the business must reimburse the bank if any debtors don’t pay up. This gives businesses access to cash immediately, no security is required but the bank charges a high fee.
  • Accrued Expenses: these are expenses that do not have to be paid until after the service has been provided e.g. gas, esb. By delaying the payment of these bills, the business can use the money as a short term source of finance for other purposes.
  • Taxation: the business collects taxes on behalf of the Revenue (e.g. VAT). These taxes are held by the business for a period of time before being forwarded to the Revenue.
  • Credit Card (Household): Allows the card holder to purchase goods and services up to a specified limit. At the end of the month the credit card company sends a statement. No interest is charged if the balance is paid by the due date.
sources of finance medium term
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessSources of finance: Medium term

Medium term finance is for one to five years and is used to finance office equipment, vehicles and machinery.

sources of finance medium term1
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessSources of finance: Medium Term
  • Hire Purchase: purchasing assets and paying by instalments over an agreed period of time. Buyer obtains the item immediately but does not become legal owner until the last instalment is paid. The rate of interest is high and is charged on the initial sum borrowed.
  • Leasing: involves the renting of an asset from a finance company. The leasee has he possession and use of the asset but does not own it. No cash lump sum or security is needed. Lease payments can be offset against profits to reduce tax.
  • Medium-term loan: from the bank, repaid in fixed instalments over an agreed period. Borrower must complete a loan application form and the money is granted for a stated reason. Banks may want security on the loan in the event of non payment. Interest on a business term loan can be offset against tax in the profit and loss account.
sources of finance long term
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessSources of Finance: Long term

Finance that will take more than five years to repay

sources of finance long term1
Ms. Marshall 6th year BusinessSources of finance: long-term
  • Mortgage: a long term loan for a household to buy a house. Available from banks or building societies. The house itself is usually required as security for the loan.
  • Debenture: a long term, fixed interest, loan for a business. Usually used for expansion. The loan is secured on the company’s assets. Interest payments on loans are a tax allowable expense in the profit and loss account. The company pays the interest every year and pays the loan back in one lump sum.
  • Savings: the amount of income the family hasn’t spent but has set aside to use in the future. No interest, no security needed but it may take a long time to save.
  • Share/Equity Capital: the owners sell some of their shares to investors in return for money. Shareholders receive a say in the running of the company and a dividend if the company makes a profit. There are no interest repayments and no security has to be provided. It is a permanent source of finance.
Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Financial Planning

Spreadsheets are used by both households and businesses to help plan their finances.

A spreadsheet is computer software that is used for basic accounting. It does maths calculations based on a formula you type in. it allows for a what if? Scenario to be calculated quickly and accurately, e.g. the impact a 10% increase in expenses would have on net profit.

  • Sources of finance: long-term
  • Retained Earnings: this is profit not paid out in dividends, but reinvested in the business. It is a free source of finance and no security is required. The business would not want to over rely on this or shareholders could become unhappy.
  • Grant: a sum of money given by the government to a business, which does not have to be paid back, providing that they meet the conditions. E.g. a start up business may be given a grant to help buy machinery. Main providers of grants are Enterprise Ireland, IDA Ireland and the county and city enterprise boards.
Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Credit Rating


  • Credit history
  • Ever bankrupt?

4 C’s of Qualifying for a Loan

  • Reputation
  • How long in job/how long business established?



  • Assets as security on the loan?

Financially viable? Income/profits – want to see P60/ Accounts

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business


Control (Business only)

Interest rate?

FIVE Factors to consider when choosing a source of finance


Tax Implications



Tax deductible expense?

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Bank statements


Cheque books

How can current accounts assist business and household financial management?


Standing Orders

ATM cards

Direct Debits

Laser/debit cards

similarities differences business household
Ms. Marshall 6th year Business



  • Both budget
  • Both should take action to deal with projected surpluses or deficits
  • Both need to keep accurate financial records
  • Both need to raise finance
  • Both can use current accounts
  • Businesses cash flow forecasts can be more complex than the household budget
  • Business cff should include regular payment of VAT and other taxes collected on behalf of the Revenue.
  • Businesses usually dealing in larger amounts.
  • Businesses can access additional sources of finance not available to households.
Similarities & Differences – Business& Household
recent exam questions

2011 Short Questions

(a) Explain the term ‘short-term finance’.

(b) Illustrate a business situation where short term finance would be appropriate.

2010 Q6c

(i) Discuss the factors that should be considered when choosing between different sources of finance.

(ii) Analyse two appropriate sources of finance for acquiring a delivery van. (30 marks).

2008Short Questions

Identify a suitable source of finance for the purchase of a delivery van in a new business enterprise. Give two reasons for your choice. (10 marks)

2008 Q6 a

“Managing a business is similar to managing a household in the areas of finance and taxation”. Discuss this statement, using examples to support your answer. (20 marks).

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Recent Exam questions
recent exam questions1

2007 SQ 10 marks

(a) Define short term finance

(b) Outline two short term finance options available for an established manufacturing business.

2005 SQ

List four activities that are similar when managing a household and a business.

2005 Q5

Discuss, using examples, the factors a manager should consider when selecting sources of finance for expansion (20 marks).

2003 SQ 10 marks

Distinguish between grants and subsidies.

+ ABQ 2003 Part a.

Ms. Marshall 6th year Business

Recent exam questions