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Welcome to CSE 124: Networked Services Fall ‘09. B. S. Manoj, Ph.D http://CalSysNet.calit2.net Lecture 1. Some of these slides are adapted from various sources/individuals including but not limited to Prof. Amin Vahdat, Prof. James Kurose, Prof. Keith Ross, CAIDA, The Internet Society,

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welcome to cse 124 networked services fall 09

Welcome to CSE 124: Networked Services Fall ‘09

B. S. Manoj, Ph.D

http://CalSysNet.calit2.net

Lecture 1

Some of these slides are adapted from various sources/individuals including but not limited to

Prof. Amin Vahdat, Prof. James Kurose, Prof. Keith Ross, CAIDA, The Internet Society,

SDSU, www.opte.org, www.swivel.com, and other sources. Use of these slides other than

for pedagogical purpose may require explicit permissions from the respective sources.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

contents
Contents
  • Course Goals
    • Resources
    • Audience
    • Main objectives
    • Grading
  • History of the Internet
  • Growth of Internet
  • Introduction to the Internet
  • Summary

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

course resources
Course Resources
  • Instructor:
    • B. S. Manoj (a.k.a Manoj Balakrishnan) bsmanoj@ucsd.edu
    • Office Hours: By appointment (Email for appointment)
  • Teaching Assistant
    • TBA
    • Office Hours: TBA
  • Course Web Page
    • Temporarily at http://CalSysNet.calit2.net/cse124
    • Later it will be updated in http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/classes/fa09/cse124

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

audience
Audience
  • Those who want to learn to innovate in advancing services over future network systems
  • Those with interest in Graduate school
  • Those with top industrial positions in mind
    • Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, Qualcomm, Akamai, IBM, Apple, etc.
  • Those who want to have real hands-on expertise

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

main objectives
Main objectives
  • To gain knowledge in networking and distributed systems
    • Lectures, textbooks, and homework
  • To understand where are we headed
    • Study of latest research publications in the area
  • Get to know how to build large scale network systems
    • Programming projects
    • From simple to novel ideas to reality translation
  • To learn to innovate
      • Through innovation project

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what we prefer not to do
What we prefer not to do
  • To teach basic programming
    • Familiarity with Operating Systems is necessary
    • Good programming skills with C/C++ is required
  • To debug source codes that you write
    • We might sometimes be of help, but not guaranteed

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

grading plan
Grading Plan
  • 15% Homework
    • Assignments and paper evaluations and write-up.
  • 40% exams
    • 15% midterm
    • 25% final exam
  • 40% Programming projects (2)
    • 15%: Project 1: HTTP server
    • 25%: Project II: Innovation project
  • 5% Attendance and Class participation

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

paper evaluations and discussions
Paper evaluations and discussions
  • Over the entire course 4 papers will be discussed
      • Mostly from ACM SIGCOMM or other highly rated conferences
      • An evaluation write-ups to be prepared (1-2 pages) per paper and submitted before their discussion
      • 12 point font, one inch margin all sides, ACM single column style
  • Points to be noted
      • Important contribution of the paper
      • Important limitations or errors (logical or technical, not typographical or grammatical) in the paper
      • How it can further be improved (briefly)

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

course projects
Course Projects
  • Two projects for the entire course span
  • Project 1
    • Build an HTTP server in C/C++
    • Team size: 2
    • Support both HTTP/1.0 and a subset of HTTP/1.1
    • Due date: TBA
  • Project 2
    • Innovation Project (1 or 2 choices will be provided)
    • You may choose your own project (provided they are novel and feasible within the time frame)
    • Instructor approval required
  • Innovation Projects are required to be presented in the class
    • 10 minutes (6 minutes for presentation, 3 minutes for discussion, and 1 minute for conclusion)

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

history of internet
History of Internet
  • 1960s-70s: Development of packet switching
  • 1970s-80s: Early proprietary networks and internetworking
  • 1980s-90s: Proliferation of networks
  • 1990s-2000s: Explosion of the networks
  • 2000-2010s: Internet as a major utility as well as threat
  • 2010-beyond: Network Transformations to new forms

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

the arpanet internet in 1969
The ARPANET (Internet) in 1969

L

O

G

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

the i nternet in 2005
The Internet in 2005
  • Host level graph
  • Only a fraction!

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: www.opte.org

internet growth
Internet Growth
  • 1977: 111 hosts on Internet
  • 1981: 213 hosts
  • 1983: 562 hosts
  • 1984: 1,000 hosts
  • 1986: 5,000 hosts
  • 1987: 10,000 hosts
  • 1989: 100,000 hosts
  • 1992: 1,000,000 hosts
  • 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts
  • 2002: over 200 million hosts
  • 2006: over 430 million hosts
  • 2008: over 541 million hosts
  • Jan 2009: over 625 million hosts
  • 2010: ?
  • 2011: ?

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: The Internet Society and www.swivel.com

growth of the internet
Growth of the Internet

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

The Internet Society, Google, and Swivel.com

growth and modern communications
Growth and modern communications
  • 50 million user population
    • Radio: 38 years
    • TV: 13 years
    • The Internet: 4 years!!! (Once it was open to the Public,)
  • Who did all these?

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

claude shannon
Claude Shannon
  • Published a”A Mathematical Theory of Communication” in 1948
  • In 1948 with the publication of A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Shannon characterized a channel by a single parameter; the channel capacity.
  • And showed that it was possible to transmit information at any rate below capacity with an arbitrarily small probability of error.
  • His method of proof was to show the existence of a single good code by averaging over all possible codes.
  • His paper established fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels, and presented the challenge of finding families of codes that achieve capacity. The method of random coding does not produce an explicit example of a good code, and in fact it has taken fifty years for coding theorists to discover codes that come close to these fundamental limits on telephone line channels.
  • Created the idea that all information could be represented using 1s and 0s. Called these fundamental units BITS.
  • Created the concept data transmission in BITS per second.
  • Widely credited as the Father of Information Theory.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: http://www.research.att.com/~njas/doc/ces5.html and the Internet Society

leonard kleinrock
Leonard Kleinrock
  • Kleinrock published his first paper on digital network communications, Information Flow in Large Communication Nets, in the RLE Quarterly Progress Report, in July, 1961.
  • He developed his ideas further in his 1963 Ph.D. thesis, and then published a comprehensive analytical treatment of digital networks in his book Communication Nets in 1964.
  • In 1966, Roberts joined the IPTO with a mandate to develop the ARPANET, and used Kleinrock's Communication Nets to help convince his colleagues that a wide area digital communication network was possible.
  • In October, 1968, Roberts gave a contract to Kleinrock's NMC as the ideal group to perform ARPANET performance measurement and find areas for improvement.
  • On a historical day in early September, 1969, a team at Kleinrock's NMC connected one of their SDS Sigma 7 computers to an Interface Message Processor, thereby becoming the first node on the ARPANET, and the first computer ever on the Internet.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: Dr. Kleinrock’s Homepage and the Internet Society

paul baran
Paul Baran
  • In 1959 Paul Baran joined RAND and started working on survivable, wide area communications networks so they could reorganize and respond after a nuclear attack, diminishing the attractiveness of a first nuclear strike option by the Soviet Union.
  • The results of which were first presented to the Air Force in the summer of 1961 as briefing B-265, then as a series of eleven comprehensive papers titled On Distributed Communications in 1964.
  • Baran's study describes a remarkably detailed architecture for a distributed, survivable, packet switched communications network. The network is designed to withstand almost any degree of destruction to individual components without loss of end-to-end communications. Since each computer could be connected to one or more other computers, it was assumed that any link of the network could fail at any time, and the network therefore had no central control or administration.
  • Baran's architecture was well designed to provide reliability and helped to convince the US Military that wide area digital computer networks were a promising technology.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: Livinginternet.com and the Internet Society

lawrence roberts
Lawrence Roberts
  • Lawrence Roberts obtained his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from MIT, and then joined the Lincoln Laboratory, where he carried out research into computer networks. In a pivotal meeting in November, 1964, Roberts met with J.C.R. Licklider, who inspired Roberts with his dream to build a wide area communications network.
  • In February, 1965, the director of the IPTO, Ivan Sutherland, gave a contract to Roberts to develop a computer network. In July, Roberts gave a contract to Thomas Marill to program the network. In October, 1965, the Lincoln Labs TX-2 computer talked to their SDC's Q32 computer in one of the worlds first digital network communications.
  • In October, 1966, Roberts and Marill published a paper titled Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers at the Fall AFIPS Conference, documenting their networking experiments.
  • Also in 1966, DARPA head Charlie Hertzfeld promised IPTO Director Bob Taylor a million dollars to build a distributed communications network that would come to be called the ARPANET.
  • In April, 1967, Roberts held an "ARPANET Design Session" at the IPTO Principal Investigator meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The standards for identification and authentication of users, transmission of characters, and error checking and retransmission procedures were outlined at this meeting.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: Livinginternet.com

vinton cerf and robert kahn
Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn
  • In 1972, Vinton Cerf was a DARPA scientist at Stanford University and he joined Robert Kahn as Principal Investigator on a project to design the next generation networking protocol for the ARPANET.
  • Cerf and Kahn drafted a paper describing their network design, titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", in 1973 and then finalized and published in the IEEE Transactions of Communications Technology, in May, 1974.
  • Cerf, Kahn, and Stanford graduate students Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine published the first technical specification of TCP/IP as an as RFC 675, in December, 1974.
  • TCP is split into TCP and IP in 1978.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

Source: Livinginternet.com

tim berners lee
Tim Berners-Lee
  • The inventor of HTML. Graduate of Oxford University, England, Tim is now with the Laboratory for Computer Science ( LCS)at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT).
  • In 1989 he invented the World Wide Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing, while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory.

Source: w3c.org and The Internet Society.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

mark andreesen
Mark Andreesen
  • Marc Andreesen, National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois, identified that most browsers were designed for UNIX machines and were available only for academics.
  • In 1992, Andreesen and Eric Bina, developed new browser Mosaic that let
    • Images and text to appear on the same page
    • A graphical interface with clickable buttons that let users navigate easily
    • The hyper-link. In earlier browsers hypertext links had reference numbers that the user typed in to navigate to the linked document. Hyper-links allowed the user to simply click on a link to retrieve a document.
  • In 1993, Mosaic made it to the front page of the New York Times business section saying “an application program so different and so obviously useful that it can create a new industry from scratch.”
  • In mid-1994, Mosaic Communications Corp. was officially incorporated in Mountain View, California where he led the development of Netscape, the leading Internet browser for another decade.

Source: www.ibiblio.org/pioneers and the Internet Society.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

innovations soon followed
Innovations soon followed
  • Yahoo.com; the web indexing service
  • Hotmail.com; first web-based email service
  • Google.com; transformed search service as one of the most important activity on the net
  • Akamai.net; content distribution service as one of the key elements in the internet
  • Peer-to-peer networks came to be as a novel alternative communication approach
  • PlanetLab became a large scale world-wide overlay network testbed
  • NSF started GENI (GENI.NET) Global Environment for Network Innovations for a future Internet

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

cool internet appliances
“Cool” internet appliances

Web-enabled toaster +

weather forecaster

IP picture frame

http://www.ceiva.com/

World’s smallest web server

http://www-ccs.cs.umass.edu/~shri/iPic.html

Internet phones

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

introduction to the internet
Introduction to the Internet
  • What is the Internet?
    • A network of networks
      • Each network may be under an autonomous organization
      • Network of a large number heterogeneous networks
        • Wireless, fiber, copper, satellite, sensor, etc.
      • From big super computers to tiny sensors
      • Sometimes even human beings
        • Assisted living as an inevitability
    • A headless network formed by millions of heterogeneous devices
      • No single administrative control is feasible
      • High reliability and availability
      • Highly vulnerable for security
    • A giant network formed by
      • Access networks (Network edge)
      • Core Network (The backbone of the Internet)
    • An important infrastructure for modern services
      • E-commerce, E-governance, Telemedicine, assisted living, reliable distributed computing, and a host of other yet-to-be identified services

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what s the internet another nuts and bolts view
millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems

running network apps

Mobile network

Global ISP

Home network

Regional ISP

Institutional network

What’s the Internet: another “nuts and bolts” view
  • communication links
    • fiber, copper, radio, satellite
    • transmission rate = bandwidth
  • routers: forward packets (chunks of data)

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what s the internet nuts and bolts view
protocolscontrol sending, receiving of msgs

e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype, Ethernet

Internet: “network of networks”

loosely hierarchical

public Internet versus private intranet

Internet standards

RFC: Request for comments

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force

IEEE standards

Mobile network

Global ISP

Home network

Regional ISP

Institutional network

What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what s the internet a service view
communication infrastructure enables distributed applications:

Web, VoIP, email, games, e-commerce, file sharing

communication services provided to apps:

reliable data delivery from source to destination

“best effort” (unreliable) data delivery

Voice, video, radio

application services

E-commerce, telemedicine, internet information processing, distributed gaming, P2P file sharing,

What’s the Internet: a service view

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

communication requirements
Communication requirements
  • Some information (An idea) for eg., Hi
  • Sufficient Energy to transmit (voice, or electrical energy)
  • A medium to transmit
    • Air, copper, fiber, RF spectrum etc.
    • A network is a collection of media that are assembled in certain specific order or form to enable end-to-end communication
  • A set of rules to make the communication meaningful
    • Hi must be recognized with proper syntax and semantics
    • Network protocols define the rules of communication over a network

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what s a protocol
human protocols:

“what’s the time?”

“I have a question”

introductions

… specific msgs sent

… specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events

network protocols:

machines rather than humans

all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols

What’s a protocol?

Definition 1: protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt

Definition 2: A communication protocol defines the rules that are associated with the syntax, semantics, and actions associated with messages and events that must be

followed for effective communication between network devices.

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

what s a protocol1
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:

TCP connection

response

Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross

Got the

time?

2:00

<file>

time

What’s a protocol?

Hi

TCP connection

request

Hi

Q: Other human protocols?

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

a look at network structure
network edge:

end hosts or devices

A look at network structure:
  • access networks, physical media: wired, wireless communication links
  • network core:
    • interconnected routers
    • network of networks

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

the network edge
end systems (hosts):

run application programs

e.g. Web, email

at “edge of network”

peer-peer

client/server

The network edge:
  • client/server model
    • client host requests, receives service from always-on server
    • e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server
  • peer-peer model:
    • minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers
    • e.g. Skype, BitTorrent
  • Hybrid model:
    • A combination of client-server and peer-to-peer model

UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

summary
Summary
  • This course is about networking with focus on services
  • More in later lectures