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Problems in the Americas. Ch. 25. Independence in Latin America. Economic problems in Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas began to emerge Roots of Revolution

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independence in latin america
Independence in Latin America
  • Economic problems in Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas began to emerge
  • Roots of Revolution
    • Wealthy colonial residents of Latin America were frustrated by the political and economic power of colonial officials and angered by high taxes
    • Inspired by Enlightenment thinkers and American and French Revs
slide3

Spanish South America

    • Venezuela Revolution
      • creole-led revolutionary junta declared independence in
      • 1811
      • Simon Bolivar- leader
      • Used his personality to attract allies
      • Defeated Spain in 1824
sim n bol var 1783 1830
Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)
  • Led independence movement in South America
  • Rebels against Spanish rule 1811, forced into hiding
  • Forms alliances with many creole leaders
  • Gran Columbia
    • Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador form Gran Colombia
    • Strong political differences cause it to disintegrate
  • Elite benefit from revolutions
    • Beneficiary was meant to be lower class
mexico 1810 1823
Mexico 1810-1823
  • Spain’s richest colony
  • Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
    • Priest
    • Began Mexican Revolution
    • September 16, 1810
    • After his death, Jose Maria Morales took over
  • 1821, Mexico declares independence
  • 1823, Mexico became a republic
brazil
Brazil
  • Due to unrest, King of Portugal left Brazil to deal with problems at home
  • Left his son in charge
  • Pedro I (son) declared Brazil ‘s independence in 1822
    • Named himself king
  • Pedro I abdicated in 1831 do to poor leadership and left son, Pedro II, in charge
  • Pedro II ruled until 1889
the problem of old order
The Problem of Old Order
  • Constitutional Experiments
    • Newly independent nations had trouble establishing stable governments
    • Everyone wanted a constitution, many were unworkable
problems in latin america
Problems in Latin America
  • Governments
    • determine role of the Church
    • Limit military power
    • Wrote constitutions and elected assemblies before independence was achieved
united states
United States
  • Played no major role in world history until mid 1800s
  • Monroe Doctrine- warned against European involvement in Americas
    • Really the British that kept others out
  • Due to rapid expansion, US became a symbol of freedom to Europeans
united states cont
United States cont.
  • 1840s- wave of immigration
    • Irish and Germans
  • Civil War (1861-1865) was crucial event
    • Industrialization
canada
Canada
  • Area won by Britain in wars with France in 1700s
  • Religious differences between the two caused uprisings
  • By 1839, Britain began granting self-rule
    • Canada established own laws, but remained attached to empire
  • Hostilities eased with creation of Quebec
    • Primarily French speaking
personalists
Personalists
  • Rely on their personal ability to gather and lead masses
  • In Latin America, personalists were called caudillos (Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats.)
    • Andrew Jackson- US
    • Jose Antonio Paez- Venezuela
foreign intervention
Foreign Intervention
  • Mexico
    • Owed money to France
    • Used this as an excuse to invade (1862)
    • French forced president Benito Juarez out
    • Replaced him with Maximilian
    • Juarez drove French out in 1867
native peoples
Native Peoples
  • Limited expansion to prevent conflict with Amerindians
  • 1830, US passed Indian Removal Act
  • Caste War in Central America
    • Mayan rebelled against government
    • Yucatan was returned to Maya
latin american society
Latin American Society
  • 30,000 peninsulares, colonial officials from Iberian peninsula
  • 3.5 million criollos (creoles), born in the Americas of Spanish or Portuguese descent
    • Privileged class, but grievances with peninsulares
    • 1810-1825 led movements for creole-dominated republics
  • 10 million others
    • African slaves, mixed-race populations
emergence of ideologies
Emergence of Ideologies
  • Conservatisms
    • Favored slow evolution of society
  • Liberalism
    • Manage, not stifle, social change
slavery
Slavery
  • Push for abolition
  • Several nations abolished slavery
    • Britain- 1834
    • US-1865
    • Puerto Rico- 1873
    • Cuba- 1886
immigration
Immigration
  • Between 1500-1760, African slaves outnumbered European immigrants 2 to 1
  • 19th cent- European immigrants= majority
  • After 1850, Asian immigration increased
    • 1849-1875
      • 100,000 Chinese
      • 120,000 Cubans
slide20

Difficulties

    • Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882
    • Head tax in Canada
    • Italians= criminals
    • Jews= banned from schools
women s rights
Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights Convention
    • Seneca Falls, NY
    • Sarah Grimke
  • Women began working outside the home