KARAGANDA STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITYDepartment: History of Kazakhstan and social-political disciplines Lecture 1 Introduction in the history of Kazakhstan Kovtun O.A-senior teacher of department’s History of Kazakhstan and SPD
Brief contents: 1.Aims and tasks of the history of Kazakhstan. 2.Historical sources and historiography. 3. Periodization of the history of Kazakhstan.
1.Aims and tasks of the history of Kazakhstan. To acquaint students with political, social, economic, ethnic processes, which took place on territory of Kazakhstan since the most ancient times: to generate the integral representation about ethno genetic histories of Kazakh people as integral part of all mankind: to achieve a profound knowledge on a history of Kazakhstan by each student, feelings of respect to a history of the Republic of Kazakhstan, to promote a formation of an active civil and patriotic position.
History solves the following tasks:I. Gnoceoiogical- give knowledge about the past of the state;
III. Pracceological- develop ability to analyzing and evaluation of various historical events;
IV. Forecasting- history is the past which aspirated into the future, history is not completed;
At last, history is a code, key which help to people to identificate and self-indificate in eternity different world.
2.Historical sources and historiography. Historical knowledge about early stages of developing of mankind based on studying of culture monuments of ancient people. They are tools, settlements, on mount pictures, burials. Later there are some written sources about ancient pilgrims on protokazakh territory- Persian, Greek, Latin. Arabic, Turkic, and Chinese. They include information about ethno genetical processes, relations with neighboring peoples, political events, economy and life-style.
The earliest written source is the main book of zoroastrizm"Avesta" ("Edification'")- ending of II-beg.of I thous. up to AD. Facts of Medieval Kazakhstan contained in the works of Arabic historian Ibn Al-Fakih (beg. of X c), European travelers Piano Carpini, GiliomRubmk,, Marko Polo (XIII c).
More complete facts about forming of Kazakh khanate are presented in works of bit of Mohammed HaidarDulati (1500-1551) "Tarih-and -Rashidi", “Records of Bukhar guest" of IbnRuzbihan(XVI c), "Collection of chronicles" of KadyraliZhalairi (beg. of XVII c). Set of historical works is written by Kazakh intelligence of the beginning of XX c, which leader was AlikhanBukeihanov ("Forms of national movements in the modem states", Materials of sultan's KenesaryKasymov history", etc.)
3. Periodization of the history of Kazakhstan.History of Kazakhstan divide on 5 big periods:
Medieval history(VI-XVII cc.) Early Medieval time (VI- XII cc.) Late Medieval time (XIII-XVII cc.)
New time ( XVIII-XIX cc.) Newest time (XX c. –present time) 1916 y.