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Ashok K. Rastogi rastogi@becker-technologies.com

Ashok K. Rastogi rastogi@becker-technologies.com

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Ashok K. Rastogi rastogi@becker-technologies.com

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  1. ZERO REGIO Hydrogen Infrastructure Development and Demonstration Ashok K. Rastogi rastogi@becker-technologies.com Rastogi

  2. ZERO REGIO Lombardia & Rhein-Main towards Zero Emission: Development and Demonstration of Infrastructure Systems for Hydrogen as an Alternative Motor Fuel Project Co-ordinator: Dr. Heinrich Lienkamp Infraserv Höchst - Frankfurt, Germany heinrich.lienkamp@infraserv.com www.zeroregio.com Rastogi

  3. Outline Brief project overview, objectives, present status Infrastructure design and construction H2 infrastructure in Germany & Italy Safety considerations Approval formalities Operational aspects Operational experience Integartion in public service stations Data collection and assessment Some problems Approvals, demonstration size, extrapolation of results Rastogi

  4. Project Objectives • Overall:Developing low emission transport systems for European cities – contribute to EC s&m term goal of 5% substitution by hydrogen in road transport by 2020Specific: • Use of hydrogen from different sources as an alternative transport fuel (by-product hydrogen, on-site reformer) • Development and demonstration of 700 bar refuelling technology • Integration of hydrogen fillers in conventional service stations • Evaluation of reliability of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel-cell cars • Socio-economic and environmental assessment of using hydrogen as a motor-fuel • Development of tools for faster market penetration of hydrogen Rastogi

  5. Project Consortium Infraserv GmbH & Co. Hoechst KG Germany, Industry, Coordinator  Linde AG, Linde Gas & Engineering Germany, Industry  DaimlerChrysler AG Germany, Industry Fraport AG, Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide Germany, Public Admin. TÜV Technische Überwachung Hessen GmbH Germany, Industry  Agip Deutschland GmbH Germany, Industry  Lunds Universitet Sweden, University Roskilde University Denmark, University Saviko Consultants Ltd. Denmark, Industry-SME European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre Italy, EC EniTecnologie S.p.A. Italy, Industry  Regione Lombardia Italy, Public Admin. Sapio Produzione Idrogeno Ossigeno S.r.l.Italy, Industry  Comune di MantovaItaly, Public Admin. Università commerciale Luigi Bocconi Italy, University C.R.F. Società Consortile per Azioni Italy, Industry-Research Centre Rastogi

  6. Demonstration Project • Project start – Nov. 15, 2004 • Project duration – 5 years • Two demonstration sites (3 H2 pathways)– 1. Rhein-Main, Germany: • Hydrogen as a by-product of a chemical plant • Fleet of F-Cell Class A Mercedes-Benz 2. Lombardia, Italy: • On-site hydrogen production, industrial prod. • Fleet of FC-Panda from CRF/Fiat Rastogi

  7. Project execution in two phases Development/Construction Phase (0-24 m) • Develop and construct modern multi-energy service stations • Design & construct H2 infrastructure: transport lines, production unit, compression & distribution equipment • Integrate H2 in service stations • Assure overall safety • Obtain certification • Prepare test procedures Demonstration Phase (25- 60 m) • Acquire fleets at both sites • Organise personnel training • Perform field tests • Acquire data on infrastructure & FCV’s • Analyse & evaluate data on energy, performance and emissions • Analyse/evaluate socio-economic aspects • Disseminate & exploit project results Rastogi

  8. Service Station Frankfurt Rastogi

  9. Service Station Frankfurt Rastogi

  10. H2 Service Station Mantova Rastogi

  11. Service Station Mantova Rastogi

  12. H2 - Infrastructure in Germany Hydrogen center in Industry park, Höchst Existing infrastructure By-product H2 is collected, conditioned, compressed (250 bar) Trailer station Ionic fluid compressor (900 bar) in center* Agip station 1.7 km from center Hydrogen transport to station via HP-pipeline (900 bar)* CGH2 dispensers, 350 bar and 700 bar each LH2 dispenser (Truck supply of LH2) Agip station opened on Nov. 17, 2006 * High Potential Rastogi

  13. Ionic Fluid Compressor – working principle PLC Rastogi

  14. Ionic Fluid Compressor Ionic liquid no vapor pressure First time in Zero Regio for H2 - 900 bar Compressor capacity = 900 Nm3/hr or 1.335 kg/min Rastogi

  15. Lay out HP Pipeline in Höchst Rastogi

  16. Some Design Details Overground: Hanging pipe system 1.4462 Material Din = 18 mm Dout = 33.7 mm Pmax =1000 bar Welded construction Leakproof by definition HP-H2-Transport system is one of its kind Underground: Tubing with PE sleeve in sandbed Rastogi

  17. Compression Scheme Rastogi

  18. 10.000 Liter Storage tank Transfer pump Dispenser Vacuum and auxiliary pipelines, Control unit, Software LH2 Filler System Rastogi

  19. LH2 Refuelling in Germany Rastogi

  20. Building & Operating Approvals in Germany One approval relates to compressor, pipeline and the concrete housing for buffer storage - §16 BImSchG Received in June 2006, approval time 10 months, extension of the existing H2 center (no operating permit reqd.) Different authorities & regulations used City & district fire directions City & district health directions, etc. Second approval for building the conventional service station based on VdTÜV 510 and TRG 400-405 – obtained in 10 weeks Third approval for operating each filling unit based on §13 BetrSichV and TRG730 – 4 months after evaluators report – too long !! Many safety analyses performed in support of above, querries from authorities often due to lack of information Rastogi

  21. Hydrogen Fillers – Höchst, Germany Agip Service Station Area = 4.062 m2 350 & 700 bar GH2 LH2 dispenser. PV 78 m2, 8 kW Opened on 17.11.2006 Rastogi

  22. Operational Experience in Germany On average 20 kg/month refilled (max. rate 60g/s) More milage and applications planned High availability inspite of some teething problems: Filters in the cooling system of the compressor Some valves failed on the compressor system Some loose fittings leading to system failure Insufficient purging of the pipeline initially Control valves at dispenser Minor electronic problems Incident reporting and management approach important One accident in the first year, no H2 discharge Rastogi

  23. Assessment Framework • INPUT DATA • Data tables on • Infrastructure • Vehicles • 2 Demo. sites • OEM‘s and Operators • Results • Indicators on • Infrastructure • Vehicles • 2 Demo. sites • Indicator value (0 to 1) Simple Data Processing • Compare with Ref. Technology • Technological aspects: • Performance, Environment, Safety • Socio-Economy • Project Organisation Rastogi

  24. Assessment of Data Compare H2 refilling with NG refilling (target presently) Energy consumption Refuelling time and procedure Consumer reaction/satisfaction Infrastructure costs Safety aspects, maintenance requirements Environmental impact (wtt and wtw) Compare H2 tranport line with NG transport lines Assess the ionic fluid compressor Rastogi

  25. H2 - Infrastructure in Mantova, Italy On-site production facility (CPO – reformer) Small unit with 20 Nm3/hr Under construction presently, delivery early 2008 Truck transport from an industrial reformer (back-up) 350 bar GH2 dispenser Delay partly due to approval formalities A mobile refueller initially (AP 100) Integration in multi-energy Agip service station 17.000 m2, Car Wash, Cafè Shop Opening ceremony today (21 Sept. 2007) Rastogi

  26. Approval Formalities in Italy One approval application (single authorisation act) for all sytems No regulations for Zero Regio H2 infrastructure in Italy Legislation for H2 distribution plants in Italy in Aug. 2006 Local fire brigade very important (& authoritative) Very detailed risk & safety analyses were performed Approval was performed in two steps Approval time for the conventional part - 6 months Approval for hydrogen production, storage and distribution system over an year Need for communication between authorities at the two sites EU wide harmonisation ! Authorities as project partners. Rastogi

  27. Some Difficulties • ZR-demonstration too small and localised (2 islands) • Infrastructure has prototype nature • HP transport-line & Ionic fluid compressor in Germany • On-site production in Italy • Fleet too small ( 5 cars in Germany & 3 in Italy) • Problems faced • Approval formalities different in Germany & Italy & elsewhere • Very long approval times in Italy both for cars & infrastructure • Compatibility (Italy?) between rules for cars and filling infrastructure Rastogi

  28. Concluding Remarks • Zero Regio has been briefly described • Focus on infrastructure developed and being tested • By-product hydrogen presents a good intermediate step • Different refuelling systems are under test • Some teething problems mentioned • Assessment of data is in progress • Both locations are suitable for refuelling larger fleets • Some difficulties have been mentioned • Infrastructure approvals have taken too long • Thank You Rastogi