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Runway Intersections Smoothness and Drainage. FAA Eastern Region 34 th Annual Airport Conference March 2 , 2011 – Hershey, PA. Runway Intersections. The layout of many Cross Wind Runways include an Intersection.

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runway intersections smoothness and drainage

Runway Intersections Smoothness and Drainage

FAA Eastern Region

34th Annual Airport Conference

March 2, 2011 – Hershey, PA

runway intersections
Runway Intersections

The layout of many Cross Wind Runways include an Intersection

Rehabilitation Requirements of these intersections result from general usage and time

rehabilitation
Rehabilitation
  • Pavement Rehabilitation is required when deficiencies are indicated
    • Structural Requirement
    • Functional Requirement
  • Grade and Profile “Correction” is REVIEWED through intersections when evaluating the pavement rehabilitation project
  • Quality Products Reviewed for Roughness / Smoothness and

Rideability

smoothness
Smoothness
  • Advisory Circular 150/5380-9 “Guidelines and Procedures for Measuring Airfield Pavement Roughness”

Provides Guidance to quantify the surface irregularities and their effects on aircraft response

FAA Software ProFAA

Boeing Bump

Straight Edge

IRI

Profilograph

Profilograph Bump Template

Used During Design

Used after Construction

drainage
Drainage
  • Runway Intersecting Pavements can cover areas as large as 3.5 acres (not including the shoulders)
  • When flattening grades and adjusting pavement profiles DRAINAGE becomes a concern

HAVE WE MADE THE

SURFACE BETTER???

construction
Construction
  • Large Pavement Areas with Minimal Slopes
    • The Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF) and The Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP) indicate that Both Rigid and Flexible Paving Techniques have built in Errors

Mix Specific Variations

Flexible – Roll Down Factors

Rigid – Edge Slump Characteristics

Stringline

Thermal Expansion or Sag

Equipment

Grading Equipment (GPS, Lasers or Surface)

Slope Controls

Paste Quality

Rigid Pavements

Human Related

Tolerances for Set Up of Equipment

Variable Placement Thickness

Flexible Pavements

construction7
Construction
  • All Errors Meet Specification Requirements for Single Lane Passes
  • All Errors Compound in Multi-lane Passes Across Large Pavement Areas
  • Minimal Slopes or Flat Grades in Large Pavement Areas Provide Construction Difficulties

Designs should incorporate a minimum of 0.50% slope in either direction for construction of large pavement areas…….

PREFERABLY BOTH

case study
Case Study

Buffalo-Niagara International Airport (BNIA)

bnia rehabilitation
BNIA Rehabilitation
  • In 2006, the Intersection of Runway 5-23 and Runway 14-32 is completed using Four (4) Separate Weekend Closures
  • In 2006, Corrective Milling and Paving was Performed to Correct Grades and Eliminate Ponding using Two (2) Weekend Closures
  • In 2006, Additional Maintenance to Improve Operational Conditions was Implemented for Surface Drainage
  • Intersection Provided Acceptable Rideability and Smoothness
bnia smoothness
BNIA Smoothness
  • Evaluation Indicated Acceptable Data
    • Runway 5-23
      • Boeing Bump Index Average < 0.25
      • Boeing Bump Index Maximum = 0.5
    • Runway 14-32
      • Boeing Bump Index Average < 0.4
      • Boeing Bump Index Maximum = 0.72
  • Acceptable Value < 1.0
bnia cross slopes
BNIA Cross Slopes
  • Runway 5-23
    • Longitudinal Profile Slope Average = 0.40%
    • Cross Slopes
      • South-East Average = 0.20%
      • North-West Average = 0.15%
      • Minimal Recorded Slope = 0.05%
  • Runway 14-32
    • Longitudinal Profile Slope Average = 0.10%
    • Cross Slopes
      • Transverse Average = 0.35%
      • Minimal Slope = 0.29%

Paving Using 0.50% Cross Slope

¾ inch in 12½ feet

1½ inch in 25 feet

bnia evaluation
BNIA Evaluation
  • Mitigation of Water Ponding
    • Current Process
      • Brooming
    • Proposed Alternatives
      • Drainage Holes
      • Altering Surface Grades
      • Grinding Channel Areas
      • Use of Porous Friction Course (PFC)
      • Combination Grinding & PFC
      • PVC Drainage System
drainage holes
Drainage Holes
  • Intersection Consists of a Deep Pavement Section
  • Drainage of Surface Water through the Base Course was Considered
  • Spot 3 Locations where water was to Drain
  • BNIA Staff to Monitor the Holes
drainage holes14
Drainage Holes

Holes Did Not Drain at a Significant Enough Rate to Pursue This Option

altering surface grades
Altering Surface Grades
  • Modifying Cross Slope to Increase Grading where Water is Ponding

Too Much Risk and Cost for Minor Grade Modifications

grinding channel areas
Grinding Channel Areas
  • Construct Channels by Diamond Grinding
  • Channels to Drain the Surface from the Low Points to the Edge of Pavement
  • Design Incorporating Roughness Criteria
  • Use ProFAA software to analyze smoothness
grinding channel areas17
Grinding Channel Areas

Depths Exceeded 1 inch with Channel Profiles at 0.25%

porous friction course
Porous Friction Course
  • Mill and Replace Channel Areas Using Variable Depth Porous Friction Course (PFC)
  • Provide Channel – No Change to Surface Grades
  • Slope Increase at Bottom of PFC to be 0.15%
  • Provide a Surface Matrix for Water to Drain Within
porous friction course19
Porous Friction Course

Minor Drainage Slope with Risk of Contamination with Fines

combine grinding pfc
Combine Grinding & PFC
  • Construct Grinding Areas Indicated Above
  • Perform Variable Depth Mill and Replacement Using PFC
  • Increased Slope
    • 0.25% for Grinding
    • 0.15% for Variable Depth Mill and Replacement
    • Total Increase 0.40%
  • Total Area would need to Increase for Milling and Paving Operation

Analysis Indicated Large Areas of Different Material Surfaces

May Effect Aircraft Operations – Variable Friction Coefficients

Higher Surface Area Maintenance

- Contamination

- Long Term Drainage

- Replacement Estimated at 5 years

pvc drainage system
PVC Drainage System
  • Slot Drains Installed in the Surface
  • Provide Similar Drainage Below the Surface
  • Concept
    • Install Along the Ponding Area
    • Limit Damage from Snow Plow or Other Maintenance Work
    • Provide Minimal Disturbance to Pavement
    • Installation Similar to Electrical Conduit
    • Remove Surface Water to Existing Storm System.
pvc drainage system22
PVC Drainage System

Preliminary Layout

pvc drainage system23
PVC Drainage System
  • Conceptual Design
    • Preliminary Design - Storm Intensity of ½” of water per hour
    • Install 4” diameter Sch 40 PVC Conduit (Collection Pipe) at a 1.5+ percent fall with Outlet Pipes at 2.5+ percent fall to Existing Storm System
    • Install 2” diameter Sch 40 PVC Conduit Risers to Surface of Pavement at a 20 to 40 feet spacing
    • Install Cleanouts
    • Encase System in P-610 PCC
    • Minimal Grind around Riser Pipes to Promote Inflow of Water to the System

Determined to be a Viable Option for BNIA

Detailed Design and Construction to Be Performed in 2011

bnia study result
BNIA Study Result
  • Existing Longitudinal and Transverse Cross Slopes through the runway intersection are less than 0.50%
  • Pavement through the intersection meets appropriate roughness criteria established by the FAA
  • Intersection requires removal of water by mechanical means during a rain event
  • Redesign and Repaving the intersection is considered too costly for drainage repair - 4 years into its service life
  • Use of the PVC Drainage System is currently considered feasible for the removal of water
  • Detailed design and construction scheduled for 2011
runway intersection design
Runway Intersection Design
  • Warping grades through Runway Intersections should NOT just accommodate roughness
  • The use of the FAA ProFAA software to evaluate the Boeing Bump and Maximum Bump Criteria are consider valuable tools
  • Longitudinal and Transverse Slopes should be evaluated using a basic understanding of the construction industry
  • Designers should minimize the areas where slopes will be less than 0.50%

It is Feasible to have a Designed Grading Plan that Drains Water BUT Can it be Constructed to Drain?

roughness vs drainage
Roughness vs Drainage

A proper intersection design will meet ACCEPTABLE roughness limits for aircraft use AND provide adequate drainage to meet other operational constraints

conclussion
Conclussion
  • The Paving Industry requires that a minimum of 0.50% should be observed to facilitate surface drainage in large paving areas
  • Intersection design should observe these limitations
  • Use of ProFAA is not limited to post construction analysis and can be used to evaluate pavement roughness during design
  • Qualified personnel should perform constructability reviews to evaluate paving within runway intersections

Special Note: Runway Intersection Repairs are considered unique to different locations

One Size Does NOT Fit All!!!!!

thank you

Thank you

Christopher S. Decker, P.E.

Roy D. McQueen & Associates, Ltd.

cdecker@rdmcqueen.com

John Diebold, P.E.

Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority

John_Diebold@nfta.com

Mathew T. Diffin, E.I.T.

Roy D. McQueen & Associates, Ltd.

mdiffin@rdmcqueen.com