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Analysing English Grammar. Workshop . outline. Where to begin the analysis Relationship between function and form Experiential Meaning Interpersonal Meaning. (multi)functional elements of the clause. Each clause expresses simultaneously 3 main strands of meaning

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outline
outline
  • Where to begin the analysis
  • Relationship between function and form
  • Experiential Meaning
  • Interpersonal Meaning
multi functional elements of the clause
(multi)functional elements of the clause
  • Each clause expresses simultaneously 3 main strands of meaning
  • Each of these strands expresses meaning through different functions
    • Elements of the clause
  • Simultaneous analysis is impossible for the analyst
    • We have to impose an order
where do we start
Where do we start?
  • IFG (Halliday, 2004):
    • Textual (clause as message)
    • Interpersonal (clause as exchange)
    • Experiential (clause as representation)
  • Bloor & Bloor (2004):
    • Interpersonal
    • Textual
    • Experiential
  • Thompson (2004):
    • Interpersonal
    • Experiential
    • Textual
  • Me?
    • Experiential
    • Interpersonal
    • Textual
function and form
Function and form
  • Structural units
    • Verbal group
    • Nominal group
    • Adverbial group
  • FunctionalElements
    • Process
    • Participants
    • Circumstances

This is only the most common correlation, other groups can be found for these functions

circumstantial elements
Circumstantial elements
  • optional elements of the clause
  • peripheral
  • not directly involved in the process
  • occur 'freely' in all types of processes (in theory)
  • for Halliday, they do not have the potential of becoming Subjects

participants are "inherent" in the process

slide10

Source: Thompson, 2004, p. 127

Patterns in Transitivity

            

interpretation

(discourse analysis)

identification

(labelling)

via patterns

 of process types

  • what are the dominant process types?
  • why these?
  • how do the types match with other aspects (e.g. location in the text, appearing in commands vs. statements, etc.)?

 of participants

  • what (groupings of) participants are there?
    • how do these compare with 'real world' entities and events?
    • what kinds of participants (e.g. concrete vs. abstract)?
  • what transitivity role(s) do they have?

 of circumstances

  • what types of circumstances are included, where in the text?
  • what gets expressed as circumstances rather than in the 'nucleus' (process + participant)?
function and form12
Function and form
  • Structural units
    • Nominal Group
    • Temporal Verbal Operator
    • Modal Verbal Operator
  • FunctionalElements
    • Subject
    • Finite
the mood system source thompson p 58
The Mood SystemSource: Thompson p. 58

wh-subj

wh-

wh-non-subj

interrogative

yes/no

indicative

exclamative

declarative

mood

non-exclamative

suggestive

imperative

marked

regular

imperative

unmarked

labelling interpersonal meaning
Labelling Interpersonal Meaning
  • Identify the Subject
  • Identify the Finite element
  • Find any Polarity markers and Modal Adjuncts
  • Determine the mood based on the relationship between Subject and Finite
  • Label what is left: Complement (will match onto a Participant, Adjunct (will match onto a Circumstance)
  • Determine the role of the clause in the exchange