“ A student is not an interruption of our work…the student is the purpose of it. We are not doing a favor by serving the student…the student is doing us a favor by giving us the opportunity to do so.” Rick Wormeli from L.L. Bean Co.poster “What is a customer?” by JM Eaton
Differentiated Instruction: A “Core” Philosophy for our IDM WorldCommon Agency LearningAugust 16, 2005 Presented by the DI Team: Phyllis Anderson, Science Consultant Vickie Bachman, Math Consultant Brad Colton, School Improvement Mary Crandall, Special Ed. Consultant Sandy Lyons, Special Ed. Consultant Sandy Merritt, Inclusion Consultant Diane Peters, Literacy Consultant Jeanie Wade Nagle, Special Ed. Consultant
“Individual differences have intrigued and challenged educators for centuries. On the one hand, the understanding and application of this concept motivates our profession. On the other hand, practical responses to individual differences have almost entirely eluded us”. Susan Aanensen, Anthony Abeal, Erin Embon, Tina Gordon, Jeff Janover ASCD conference, 2005
Our Purpose You will know… • What differentiated instruction is You will understand… • The general components of DI • How DI works • How DI relates to the Core Instructional Cycle of IDM
Our Purpose You will be able to… • Encourage and support teachers as they learn about and implement DI • Share instructional strategies that will help teachers create differentiated lessons • Locate appropriate resources
Differentiating InstructionA Definition Differentiated instruction can be defined as: a way of teaching in which teachers proactively address the needs of individual students and/or small groups of students to maximize the learning opportunity for each student in the classroom.
What if we differentiated instruction every time a child of any age needed it in school?What kind of adult might that child become?
What if we never differentiated instruction for any child of any age when they needed it in school?What kind of adult might this child become?
Did your teachers differentiate instruction for you when you were in school? If so, how?
First Step What is the first step the doctor, salesperson, seamstress do when they meet with the patient/client?
Professional’s First Step Pre-Assessment to determine patient/client needs before prescribing, sewing, bringing out shoes, etc.
Why Differentiate? • One size doesn’t fit all • Students learn at different rates • Students bring different background knowledge to any unit of study • Students learn best in different ways
Responding to Student Needs • Readiness level • Interests • Learning style
It is: More qualitative than quantitative Organized The use of multiple approaches to content, process, and product It is not: Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads Chaotic Just another way to provide homogenous instruction What is Differentiated Instruction?
It is: Student centered A blend of whole class, group, and individual instruction It is not: Individualized instruction More work for the good students and less and different for the poor students What Is Differentiated Instruction?
Principles Guiding Differentiated Instruction • The teacher focuses on essential learning and key concepts. • The teacher attends to student differences. • Assessment and instruction are inseparable. • The teacher modifies content, process, and products.
Principles GuidingDifferentiated Instruction • The teacher ensures that all students participate in respectful work. • The teacher and students collaborate in learning. • The teacher utilizes both classroom and individual data. • The teacher uses flexible grouping according to readiness, interests and/or learning styles.
Differentiation… a teacher’s response to learner’s needs guided by the Standards of Teaching… Teach to an Objective To the correct level of difficulty Monitor & Adjust … and general principles of differentiation, such as Respectful tasks Ongoing assessment and adjustment Flexible grouping
Respectful Tasks • Readiness level matches level of cognitive complexity • Expect all students to grow • Appropriate levels of difficulty • All tasks are interesting, important, and engaging for all students
Flexible Grouping Students are part of many different groups and have opportunities to work alone, based on matching the task to student readiness, interest, and/or learning style.
Assessment of Instruction • Evaluates understanding of key concepts • Can be differentiated • Drives instruction • Occurs consistently before, during, and at end of unit (pre-assessment, formative, and summative)
Ways to Differentiate Content • Compacting Curriculum • Learning Contracts • Tiered Lessons • Leveled Texts
Tiered Lessons • Support differences in readiness • Allows students to work at their level and expand learning without frustration • Can tier activity, task, and/or product
Developing a Tiered Activity 1. Select activity based on essential learnings 2. Think about students’ • Readiness (skills, reading, thinking, information) • Interests • Learning style • Talents 3. Create activity that is • Interesting • Causes students to use key skills of unit 4. Chart complexity of activity
Developing a Tiered Activity 5. Develop activities to ensure challenge and success • Materials (basic-advanced) • Form of expression (familiar to unfamiliar) • From personal experience to unfamiliar 6. Match task to student based on learning style and readiness
Ways to Differentiate Process • RAFTS • Cubing, Think Dots • Choices (Intelligences) • Centers/Stations • Contracts • Graphic Organizers
Cubing • Versatile strategy • Activities for different groups of students based on student readiness, learning style, and/or interests • Different tasks related to the subject and/or concept on each side.
Activity Find the three “Weather Watch” cubes in the handout.
With an elbow partner, discuss how these cubes encourage all levels of thinking.
Graphic Organizers • Visual displays of information • Arranged in bubbles or squares • Connected by lines to portray relationships
Types of Graphic Organizers • Concept Maps • Flow Diagrams • Tree Diagrams • Matrices
Ways to Differentiate Product • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning style • Clear expectations • Timelines • Contracts • Product Guides
In a Differentiated Classroom… • All students participate in respectful work. • Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. • Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. • Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.
In a Differentiated Classroom… • The teacher has established a learning profile for each student. • The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. • The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. • Assessment and instruction are inseparable.
Student ownership Positive support Stimulation Free of undue stress and pressure Appropriate challenges Social interaction Students allowed to make choices Promotes exploration and joy of learning Active student involvement Problem solving and conflict resolution Responsibility Teamwork Personal best FUN Classroom Environment
Readiness Levels • Equal the playing field • Add or remove scaffolding • Vary the difficulty levels of text and materials • Adjust the task • Vary amount of direct instruction
Differentiating by Interests Students have choice of activities, materials, and ways to demonstrate their learning.