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Evidence-based Practices That Build And Foster Student Competence For Success In Postsecondary Education. Dr. Margo Izzo, Ohio State University Margo.Izzo@osumc.edu Dr. Stan Shaw, University of Connecticut Stan.email@example.com Presentation at the State Transition Planning Institute
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Dr. Margo Izzo, Ohio State University
Dr. Stan Shaw, University of Connecticut
Presentation at the State Transition Planning Institute
Students with disabilities who graduate from college exhibit similar employment rates and annual salaries compared to their counterparts without disabilities (Madaus, 2006; National Center for Education Statistics 2000)
Source: The Ohio Longitudinal Transition Study: A Preliminary Analysis (2004)
In spite of the more than 50% of students who want to go to college, NLTS2 reported that one year following graduation only
Source: NLTS2 (2004)
(Burgstahler, Crawford, & Acosta (2001)
Get a diagnostic evaluation that recommends as many
accommodations and waivers as possible.
Use as many modifications, accommodations, waivers, and
content tutoring as you can get in order to achieve seemingly
Parents should provide whatever advocacy (pressure) it takes to
help student “look like” college material.
The “best” college is the one with the “most” support
Parents should make all the calls and send in applications or
documentation because student with a disability is busy,
disorganized, or forgetful.
IDEA 2004 encourages student involvement in
transition planning and acknowledges student
control at age of majority
• Profoundly different expectations between
HS and college
Student must assume role of independent
self-advocate to receive assistance in
“Increasingly and justifiably, youth with
disabilities are viewed as capable of
conceiving and shaping their own futures.”
- NLTS2 (2003)
Highly self-determined young adults with disabilities demonstrated more employment success and financial independence (Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997)
Positive correlation between high self-determination and high GPA in college students with LD (Field, Sarver & Shaw, 2003; Sarver, 2000)
Internal locus of control
Positive attribution of efficacy and outcome expectancy
Goal setting and attainment
When we hear the word self-determination, the
terms “control,” “goals,” “choice,” and “self-
confidence” should come to mind.
Indicator 13 Checklist:
IDEA NOT IN EFFECT (i.e., no FAPE, no special education, no availability of diagnostic evaluations, no formal parent role, no “guarantee” of a seat or success)
504/ADA provides equal access (i.e., no discrimination) but only if you are “otherwise qualified,” self-identify, and provide acceptable documentation of a disability
Section 504 Requires Data to Answer the Following Questions:
• Does the student have a documented disability?
• Does the current disability substantially limit a major life function (e.g., learning)?
• What supports and accommodations are reasonable and appropriate based on the data?
Evaluations before change in eligibility
Although formal evaluations are no longer required, IEP Teams and/or parents can still request evaluations or re-evaluations in order to:
1) to determine whether the student continues to be a student with a disability
2) to determine if the student’s educational needs still require special education and related services;
3) to determine the present levels of academic achievement and related developmental needs of the student;
4) to determine whether any additions or modifications to special education and related services are needed to enable the student to meet
the measurable annual goals set out in the IEP and to participate, as appropriate, in the general education curriculum.
“Beginning not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 16… the IEP must include:
A tool to bridge the gap between standardized assessments and actual current performance
This section may be filled out independently by the student or completed with the student through an interview.
The Association on Higher Education and Disability recently published AHEAD’s Best Practices: Disability Documentation in Higher Education (2005) to support postsecondary personnel in this effort. It states,
The principles espoused by this document recommend that “institutional documentation policy should be flexible, allowing for the consideration of alternative methods and sources of documentation, as long as the essential goal of adequately describing the current impact is met” (p. 5)
What is the current reality?
Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI)
Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)
We have preliminary data that there is a gap between technology skills needed and mastered in high school compared to those critical in postsecondary education? Those skills are across three domains:
Students with disabilities often need preparation across all three domains (Parker & Banerjee, 2007)
SwD who participated in EnvisionIT, a 40 hour transition course delivered online had:
Izzo, Dillon, Nagaraja, Novak, in press
Campus mobility training
Scribe for written exams
Exams read aloud
Sign language interpreter
Distraction-free testing environment
Use of a word processor for essay exams
Specialized assistive technology
Course substitutions of non-essential program requirementsTypes of Accommodations
Postsecondary education is a realistic and necessary option for successful adult outcomes.
An understanding of the differences between high school and postsecondary education is necessary if students with disabilities and their families are to be prepared to make wise choices for successful transition.
School personnel and students should use transition planning to foster self-determination and independent learning in students with disabilities.
It is critical for students to have the required assessment data and documentation of needs and accommodations if they expect supports in postsecondary education.