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Demand Driven Vocational Training; Certification & Recognition of Skills Situation Analysis – India Presentation by Y.P. Sharma Director (Trg.) DGE&T Ministry of Labour & Employment

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Demand Driven Vocational Training; Certification & Recognition of Skills

Situation Analysis – India

Presentation by Y.P. Sharma

Director (Trg.)


Ministry of Labour & Employment

main focus
Main Focus

Situation Analysis – India

  • Labour Market Oriented Vocational Training
  • Skill Upgradation & Vertical Mobility
  • Benchmarking of Skills & Recognition for Skill Mobility
situation analysis india vocational education ve vocational training vt

Situation Analysis- India“ Vocational Education (VE)” &“Vocational Training (VT)”

Internationally, the terms “Vocational Education”

and “Vocational Training” are used interchangeably

or the use of combined term- ”Vocational Education and Training” (VET).

In Indian Context- education and training

have been traditionally separated.


Vocational Education (VE) &Vocational Training (VT) in India

  • Vocational Education’ refers to vocational courses being offered in schools for Grades 11 and 12 students under a Centrally Sponsored Scheme 'Vocationalization of Secondary Education‘. Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD ) has overall responsibility.
  • Vocational Training is offered through separate training institutes set up for the purpose .Ministry of Labour & Employment has over all responsibility .

National Vocational Training System(NVTS)

Management Structure : National & State Level

Vocational Training is a concurrent subject :

DGE&T is the nodal department for formulating policies, laying down standards, curriculum development, affiliation of institutes/ courses, trade testing and certification.

Two tripartite bodies, viz. The Central Apprenticeship Council (CAC) and the National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) advise Central Government on various aspects of VT

Corresponding State Councils advise the State Governments in respect of vocational training at State level.

The State Governments are responsible for implementation of Vocational Training Programmes at the State level .


National Vocational Training System (NVTS)

Management Structure National & State Level

State Government Departments deliver vocational training through :-

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)- under the administrative and financial control of the respective State Government .

Industrial Training Centers (ITCs)- privately funded and managed (some get support from State Governments)


National Vocational Training System(NVTS)

Vocational Training for school leavers :

Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS):

Vocational Training is offered through more that 5000 institutes (ITIs/ITCs) in 107 trades for student with 8th to 12th class pass ; duration 6 months to 3 years .

ITI Graduates after completion of training and qualifying the Trade Test are awarded National Trade Certificate (NTC) and perceived as semi-skilled workers

Apprenticeship Training Scheme (ATS ):

Shop floor training is offered through 20,700 establishments in 153 trade for student with 8th to 12th class qualification and ITI Certificate holders ; duration 6 months to 4 years .

Trainees after qualifying the Trade Test are awarded National Apprenticeship Certificate (NAC) and perceived as skilled workers

national vocational training scheme
National Vocational Training Scheme

In-service Training :

  • Long term , Short term & tailor made courses are offered at specialized institutes set up by Govt. of India & at selected ITI s .

Women Training :

  • 25 % seats reserved in general ITI s.
  • One National and 10 Regional Institutes for women offering Basic, Advanced & Instructor Training .
  • Women ITIs/Wings - 837 with 47,000 seats
routes to skills progression for school leavers
Routes to Skills Progression for School leavers
  • ITI graduates may enter as ‘Trade Apprentices’ and qualify as skilled workers.
  • Vertical mobility for ITI graduates - provision for lateral entry in second year have been kept in Diploma Courses offered at Polytechnics .
  • Vocational Education graduates may enter as ‘Technician Apprentices’ under Apprenticeship Training Scheme .

Routes to Skills Progression for workers

Industrial workers upgrade their skills through short term training programmes offered at DGET field Institutes and selected ITIs in specialized areas.

These trained workers are perceived to be highly skilled

Various Ministries at Central and State level are also providing specialized training to workers as per the requirement.

national skill standards nss and their importance
National Skill Standards(NSS) and their importance
  • NSS are set up primarily to specify the minimum skill and knowledge requirements that the workers are expected to possess in specific occupational areas .
  • Used as a tool for unifying all training programmes, training standards, training material .
  • A National skill testing and certification system can be establish.
  • Acceptable means of assessing the competency of skilled manpower.
  • Mobility and opportunities in terms of employment and promotion with in thecountry and abroad.
  • NSS for 107 trades under CTS & 153 trades for ATS are developed and in force.
demand driven vocation training present scenario
Demand Driven Vocation Training- present scenario
  • New trades are introduced regularly to ensure that skilled man power is available in employable emerging areas .
  • Unpopular trades not relevant to the market needs are deleted .
  • Periodic review & updation of course curricula involving experts from Industry.
demand driven vocational training present scenario centres of excellence coe
Demand Driven Vocational Training- present scenarioCentres of Excellence (Coe)

500 ITIs (100 from domestic and 400 with World Bank assistance) are being upgraded into Centre of Excellence . The highlights of the COEs are:

  • flexible multi-entry/ multi-exit, multi-skilling modular courses as per the needs of Industry
  • active participation of Industry at every stage for development of COE viz from assessment of training needs , development of Curricula, selection of trainees to testing of trainees and assisting in placement of ITI graduates

National system of Testing & CertificationTesting and Certification – (Skills acquired through formal training )

A well established trade testing & certification system in the country.

28 All India Trade Tests held annually for different levels.

Trainees of ITIs/ITCs and trade Apprentice in companies are subjected to trade tests at the national Level .

Written and Practical test , Question Papers are prepared involving trade experts from Industry

Test papers moderation by academicians.

National Trade Certificate and National App.Certificate are awarded under the aegis of NCVT to ITI Graduates and Trade Apprentices respectively.


National Vocational Training System (NVTS)

Recognition- employability perspective

Certificates awarded under CTS and ATS are recognized qualification for employment under States and Central Government deptts / Undertakings .

National Certification has credibility both with in the country & abroad .

Industrial workers after skill upgradation are awarded certificates at the institute level, which is recognized by sponsoring organization. .

national skill competition need to participate in world skill
National Skill Competition - need to participate in World Skill

Skill Competition for Craftsmen -- 13 trades – once a year

Skill Competition for Apprentices – 15 trades - twice a year -local, regional & All India Level .

Awards :

Best Craftsmen , Best Apprentices - Merit certificates & Cash price.

Best State – Certificate of Merit & running shield

Best Establishment - Certificate of Honour from the Hon’ble President of India & running trophy .

Work Skills Competitions conducted jointly by DGE&T & CII once a year in nine trades for its member industries .


world skills competition participation
World Skills Competition - Participation
  • No Participation at international level .
  • India decided to become member of World Skill & participate in “Worldskills Competition” .
  • Work skill competition jointly conducted by DGE&T & CII are being modified in line with Worldskills competitions .
  • Experienced gained would be useful for reorienting the training programme offered in the country to make it world class.
vocational training in informal sector
Vocational Training in Informal Sector
  • In India , a large number of workers have acquired skills in an informal manner
  • Family tradition/ occupation or by virtue of being in employment in a particular trade for a long time.
  • The skills acquired are in varying areas of activities
  • The size of the informal economy in India is large and about 93% of the total work force is engaged in the informal economy.
  • Lack of testing & certification of their levels of skill

attainment results in stagnation without any scope for elevation.


Testing and Certification – Initiatives for recognizing informal learning

Need for introducing system for Testing & Certification of skills acquired informally

Initiative for Testing and Certification of skills of workers who have not undergone any formal institution training was taken up.

Implemented through 3 approved agencies/bodies and 17 State Governments

Competency based skill standards have been developed for 47 skill areas mainly for construction sector .


New strategies

Skill Development for informal sector

To provide skill training to, economically weaker section & less educated persons - a new framework for skill development is being evolved. Competency oriented employable skill training will be offered on modular basis.

The scheme envisaged to train and certify 1 million persons in five years in employable skills .

Thereafter 1 million people will be trained every year .

These acquired qualifications will be expressed in terms of learning outcomes. For skill progression of this target group a national qualification frame work is being evolved.


ILO recommendation 195 on frame work for recognition and certification of skills adopted by the ILO conference at ninety –second session Geneva,17th June,2004

  • Measures should be adopted , in consultation with the social partners and using a national qualification framework, to promote the development, implementation and financing of a transparent mechanism for the assessment , certification and recognition of skills including prior learning and previous experience, irrespective of the countries where they were acquired and whether acquired formally or informally .
  • Such as assessment methodology should be objective, non discriminatory and linked to standards.
  • The national framework should include a credible system of certification which will ensure that skills are portable and recognized across sectors industries , enterprises and educational institutions.
  • Special provisions should be designed to ensure recognition and certification of skills and qualifications for migrant workers.
skill mobility
Skill mobility
  • Globalization of trade and employment has brought in a qualitative change world over.
  • Mass movement of people across the national boundaries
  • Manpower has become a potent force as a good source of foreign exchange earning and regeneration of economic growth .
  • People are also migrating with a view to upgrading their skills.
  • India has a vast reservoir of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled manpower .
  • India being young country, larger number of Indians can emigrate to other countries for work if they are given proper training, counseling and reorientation.
skill mobility issues
Skill mobility – Issues
  • Development of National Qualification framework including certification which will ensure that skills are portable and recognized across boundaries .
  • Mutual recognization of Qualification framework and harmonization of skill standards .
  • Obstacle free mobility of workers .
  • Raising skill levels of Indian workers .
skill mobility approach
Skill mobility – Approach

Development of National Qualification framework

  • A Nationally agreed framework that would guide and reflect the agreement of stake holders required to be developed.
  • Such Framework will act as a bridge between different national systems of acquiring skills and facilitate transparency, mobility and progression of different levels of skilled people working in and outside the country.


skill mobility approach1
Skill mobility – Approach

Mutual recognition of Qualification and harmonization of skill standards

  • Projection of employable areas and development of acceptable skills standards
  • Cooperation agreement with partner countries for a coherent framework of qualification.
  • Mechanism to acquire skill needed and get it certified by appropriate authority.


skill mobility approach2
Skill mobility – approach

Obstacle/ barrier free mobility of workers

  • Mutual recognition of qualifications .
  • Avoid discrimination while evaluating the foreign countries qualification .

( In practice national qualifications are considered superior)

  • Build up mutual trust and confidence through regular contacts
  • Easy/ fast track visa to workers having recognized qualification


skill mobility approach3
Skill mobility – approach

Raising skill levels of workers

  • Measures to upgrade Skill standards of workers with active participation of stake holders .
  • Measures could include having skills competition amongst partner countries .


  • Skill Capital of the World
  • Re-orientation of the training courses to produce workforce of world standards
  • Benchmarking of skills acquired informally for Skill mobility of the workforce.