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Modules • Radiation Safety Program • Radiation Basics • Biological Effects • Laboratory Safety • Instruments & Monitoring Techniques • Personnel Dosimetry & Exposure Limits • Procurement & Receiving • Waste Management & Disposal • Transfer & Transportation • Decontamination & Emergency Procedures • Security
Radiation Safety Program Responsibilities Regulations Authorization (Project) Requirements Module 1
Responsibilities • US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) • Purdue University • Radiation Safety Program • Radiation Safety Committee • Personnel • Principal Investigator (PI) • Authorized Users • Other Personnel
Responsibilities: NRC • US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) • The Commission formulates policies, develops regulations governing nuclear reactor and nuclear material safety, issues orders to licensees, and adjudicates legal matters.
Responsibilities: Purdue University • Radiation Safety Program: Authorized by Purdue University Executive Memorandum No. B-14 • Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) • Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) in the Dept. of Radiological and Environmental Management (REM) • Radiation Safety Staff • Radiation Safety Manual
Responsibilities: REM • REM serves as a consultant to the University Community in the following areas: • Construction Health and Safety, • Environmental Health, • Fire and Safety Equipment Service, • Hazardous Material Management, • Industrial Hygiene, • Laser Safety, • Radiation Safety, and • Safety and Ergonomics • REM assists in monitoring regulatory compliance with various federal, state, and university regulations involving environmental, health and safety issues. Services include training, consultation, emergency response, and waste removal.
Responsibilities: REM Radiation Safety Section • Responsible for complying with regulations set forth by the US NRC, as well as the Indiana State Department of Health, for the safe use of radioactive materials and radiation producing devices. This is accomplished by providing several types of training, radioactive waste pickups, calibration services, personnel dosimetry to monitor radiation exposure, and consulting support for any safety issues identified by Purdue University employees and students.
Responsibilities: RSC • The mission of the Radiation Safety Committee is to ensure the safety of the University and community in the utilization of all radioactive materials and radiation producing devices at the University or by University faculty, staff, or students.
US NRC Regulations and Regulatory Guides • US NRC Rules and Regulations 10 CFR Part 19 - Notices, Instructions and Reports to Workers: Inspection and Investigations • US NRC Rules and Regulations 10 CFR Part 20 – Standards for Protection Against Radiation • US NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13 – Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure • Many others
10 CFR Part 19 • Workers Rights: • to be informed of storage, transfer, and use of radioactive materials, • to further instruction on health protection problems associated with radiation exposure and procedures to minimize exposure, • to receive radiation exposure history upon written request to the RSO, • to request NRC inspection, • to be instructed in and required to observe applicable provisions of NRC regulations and licenses, and • to be instructed in the appropriate response to warnings.
10 CFR Part 20 • Occupational dose limits • Surveys and monitoring • Precautionary procedures • Waste disposal • Records of surveys • Enforcement • Storage and control of licensed material
US NRC Policy Statement:61 FR 24336 • Freedom of Employees in the Nuclear Industry To Raise Safety Concerns Without Fear of Retaliation • Retaliation against employees or students engaged in protected activities, whether they have raised safety concerns within the University or to the NRC, will not be tolerated. • Problems should be first addressed within the existing University hierarchy.
Authorization (Project) Requirements • Approval Process begins after required forms are submitted to REM. • Complete Required Training • Follow Laboratory Safety Practices (see Module #4) • Recordkeeping • Decommissioning
Project Requirements: Approval Process • Forms must be completed and approved by RSO, RSC • Form A-1: Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of Radioactive Materials and Radiation Producing Devices(New/Amend Project Form) • Form A1-S: Radiation Facility Approval Request (New Lab Application) • Form A-4: Application to Use Radioactive Materials and/or Radiation Producing Devices (New User Application) • Form SM-1: Survey Meter Registration • Training must be completed by all users
Project Requirements: Complete Required Training • Available Training: • (General) Radiation Safety Training for Use of Radioactive Materials • Sealed Source Training (includes irradiator and nuclear gauges) • Diagnostic x-ray (includes DEXA) • Analytical x-ray (diffraction) • Laser Safety • Declared Pregnant Worker • DOT Training (Transport of Hazardous Materials) • Radiofrequency/Electromagnetic Safety Training • Others, as needed • Note: Some retraining may be required. Awareness training is also available as needed.
Project Requirements: Recordkeeping • Use Radioactive Material Logbook • Keep the most recent authorization printout in this binder • Authorized users and locations listed • Authorized nuclides, compounds, and amounts • Survey Log • Waste and Inventory Logs • Radionuclide Receipts • KEEP YOUR RECORDS UPDATED!
Project Requirements:Laboratory Safety Practices • See Module #4 of this training.
Project Requirements: Decommissioning • All radiation-labeled equipment must be certified HAZARD FREE prior to service or disposal • Liquid scintillation counters, gamma counters, and gas chromatographs could contain radioactive sources • Prior to moving out of an area and abandoning equipment - notify REM
Project Requirements: Enforcement • May obtain an injunction or court order to prevent a violation • Civil penalties • Criminal penalties • willful violation of, attempted violation, or conspiracy to violate any regulation
Radiation Basics Definitions and Units Background Exposure Types ALARA Half-Lives and Decay Module 2
Definitions & Terms • Radioactivity • Spontaneous emission of particles and/or electromagnetic radiation from an unstable nucleus. • Ionizing Radiation • Radiation of sufficient energy to strip electrons from the orbit of an atom causing ionization. • Contamination • Radioactive material in an unwanted location. • Half-Life • The time required for any given radioisotope to decrease to one-half it’s original quantity • After 10 half-lives, the radioactivity is reduced to 0.01% of the original activity
Radiation Units • Exposure - ionization in air • Units: roentgen R, (milliroentgen, mR)(C/kg of air) • Survey instrument readings (i.e. Geiger-Mueller, Ion) • Absorbed Dose - energy deposited in matter • Units: rad (millirad, mrad) (Gy, mGy, J/kg) • Dose Equivalent - biologically weighted absorbed dose • Units: rem (millirem, mrem, Sv, mSv) • Measured by dosimetry • Derived or Calculated
Radiation Units2 • Activity- quantity of radioactive material • millicurie (mCi) • 2.22 billion disintegrations per minute (dpm) • 37 million disintegrations per second (dps) • Becquerel (Bq) • 1 dps • so 1 mCi = 37 MBq and 1µCi = 37 kBq
Background Exposure • Average Annual Background Radiation Exposure in the US is approximately 620 mrem • Personal background exposure may be influenced by location and lifestyle Source: NCRP Report #160
Types of Radiation • There are 4 main types of radiation, each of which has different shielding requirements • Alpha • Particle made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons • Atomically large • Beta • Electron particle • Moderately easy to shield – avoid lead or high “Z” material • Gamma/x-rays • Energy only – not particulate • More difficult to shield • Neutrons • Neutral particle • Difficult to shield
ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable • Methods • Time • Distance • Shielding • Amount • Contamination Control • Dosimetry • Notification trigger level of 100 mrem per wear period for whole body exposure
ALARA: Time • The less time spent in a radiation area the lower the accumulated exposure to the worker. • Plan all work efficiently. It is best to do an experiment using a non radioactive surrogate and allow someone to watch the your technique, or videotape the work. Reducing time will reduce exposure.
ALARA: Distance • The greater the distance the lower the exposure. Your goal should be to never allow the distance between you and any source to become zero. Therefore: • Never touch any source if you can avoid it. • Use tweezers, tongs, holders, racks, or other engineered fixtures. • Move sources to the back of hoods or in other ways away from personnel.
2 2 2 1 = I2 d I1d ALARA: Distance (2) • Inverse Square Law (Point Source) • Intensity of Radiation decreases as the inverse square of the distance. • Doubling distance, exposure = ¼ of original; Tripling distance = 1/9 of original exposure.
ALARA: Shielding • Always use shielding. The greater the shielding the lower the exposure to workers. • 1 cm of plastic for most Betas. • Lead for gammas, or x-rays. • Graded shielding is best, i.e. plastic first then mass like lead. • Check effectiveness of shielding with a meter.
ALARA: Shielding (2) Paper/Skin Plexiglas Lead Paraffin/Water/Concrete Alpha Beta Gamma Neutron
ALARA: Amount • The smaller the amount of radioactive material the lower the exposure. • Use the smallest volume or the lowest specific activity needed for an experiment. • Remove debris from the work area. Clean the area. • Decontaminate when contamination is found. • Survey the area on a regular bases. • Do your “wipe tests” on a regular basis.
Dosimetry • Individuals working with significant amounts of radioactive material are provided dosimetry to measure their radiation exposure • When exposures exceed specified low trigger limits of 100 millirem during the period (monthly or bimonthly) the user is notified • A form must be completed and returned to acknowledge that the user is aware of the exposure and will take steps to reduce if possible
Biological Effects from Radiological Exposure Routes of Exposure Biological Effects Risk Analysis Module 3
Routes of Exposure • An individual can be exposed to radiation: • Internally • Intake by mouth, nose, eyes, or any open cut • Externally • Energy is passed through the body and/or absorbed by tissues • Contamination • Residual radioactivity on the skin irradiates skin and other tissues
Routes of Radiation Exposure An individual can be exposed to radiation through these routes: • Internal • (alpha, low energy beta) • Inhalation • Ingestion • Injection (wound) • Absorbtion External (high energy beta, gamma, neutron)
Biological Effects • Acute (one-time) high level dose • Can cause radiation damage and symptoms quickly • Chronic (long-term) low level dose • Body has time to repair/replace damaged cells • Effects, if any, appear after 20-30 years • Risk of cancer with 1 rem of radiation increases from the normal rate of 20% to 20.03% Acute effects are highly unlikely using millicurie amounts of radioactivity in a research setting
Biological Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure* *Source: Merck Manual Online Medical Library
Chronic Biological Effects • Stochastic (by chance): the effects have no threshold and the severity of the effect does not vary with the dose • Cancer (including leukemia) • Deterministic: the effects have a threshold and the severity of the effect does vary with the dose • Cataracts
Risk Analysis • High doses - there is a correlation between dose and effect • Low doses (<10 rem) - it is unclear what the risk is at this level. BEIR VII Report assumes linear no-threshold dose response, so any dose could have a negative effect – doses are maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) • Hormesis – some scientists believe that low doses of radiation may be beneficial
Laboratory Safety Posting and Labeling Facility Classification Eating, Drinking, Smoking, Application of Cosmetics Personal Protective Equipment Equipment Maintenance Module 4
Posting and Labeling • In room/area • Door: Lab Classification • Near radioactive waste: Waste Poster • On equipment used for radioactive materials • Radioactive materials label • Do not place Radioactive Materials label on something that is not used for radioactive materials or is not radioactively contaminated
Eating, Drinking, Smoking, & Cosmetic Application • While the consumption of food and beverages is generally discouraged in chemical labs, restrictions are different for each laboratory class.
Storage and Use of Radioactive Material • The use of food containers for handling or storing radioactive materials is not permitted. Any other containers used must be clearly marked as containing radioactive material. • See Section 9.2 of the Purdue University Radiation Safety Manual.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • A minimum of gloves, lab coat and shoes that cover the feet are required for work with unsealed sources of radioactive material • For operations with splash potential - safety glasses or goggles are required • Remember that gloves should not be worn outside the lab – this has the potential to spread contamination.
Gloves • For contamination control, but not considered shielding • Remove when finished with handling material or when contaminated; whichever comes first • Consider double-gloves during procedures that are likely to contaminate Monitor your gloves frequently and change when they become contaminated
Equipment Maintenance • All equipment used for radioactive material use MUST have a “radioactive materials” label affixed. • If equipment requires maintenance, remove materials from area and clean surfaces. • Attach Hazard Clearance and Declaration Form (aka: “Clean Sheet”) to equipment.
Instruments & Monitoring Techniques Purpose Commonly Used Instruments Monitoring Guidelines Efficiencies Module 5