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Anatomy and Physiology. Chapter 6 Part I. Why Study Anatomy?. Understand how the human body functions as an integrated whole. Recognize changes from the norm. Determine a scientific basis for the proper application of services and products

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Anatomy and Physiology

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anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 6

Part I

why study anatomy
Why Study Anatomy?
  • Understand how the human body functions as an integrated whole.
  • Recognize changes from the norm.
  • Determine a scientific basis for the proper application of services and products
  • Without knowledge of facial bones and muscle structure make-up applications might be difficult
Knowledge of head contours, bones, and muscle structure will help with shampooing, manipulations, haircuts and hairstyles.
  • Create a style based on your knowledge of facial bones and muscle structure.
  • Recognize the facial bones, nerves, and muscle structure when performing a facial.
Perform manipulations involving the face, hands, arms, shoulders, neck, feet, lower legs safely and effectively as a result of your understanding of bones, muscles, nerves, and circulation.
Understanding anatomy and physiology will help you be more proficient at performing professional salon services.
  • The study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
  • The study of the functions and activities performed by the body structure.
  • The study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of normal, internal stability in the organism. – write in on pp 113
  • Molecules of energy turn to fat if they are not used – write in on pp 114
  • The basic unit of all living things
  • Without cells, life does not exist
  • Responsible for carrying on all life processes
basic construction of the cell
Basic Construction of the cell
  • Protoplasm – a colorless jellylike substance in which food elements are present
    • Visualize the white of a raw egg
  • Nucleus – dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell.
    • Plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism
    • Visualize the nucleus as the yolk of a raw egg
Cytoplasm – is all the protoplasm of a cell except what is in the nucleus
    • The watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell
  • Cell Membrane – encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
Cell Structure
  • Animal Cell Anatomy -
cell reproduction and division
Cell Reproduction and Division
  • Mitosis – dividing into two (2) identical cells called daughter cells
    • If conditions are favorable the cell will grow and reproduce
    • Adequate supply of food, oxygen and water; suitable temperatures; ability to eliminate waste products
cell metabolism
Cell Metabolism
  • Metabolism – is a chemical process that takes place in all living organisms, whereby all cells are nourished and carry out their activities
  • Is constructive metabolism, the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
    • The body stores water, food, oxygen for cell growth and repair
  • Is the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones
  • Anabolism and Catabolism are carried out simultaneously and continually
  • Collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
  • Specific function and can be recognized by its characteristic appearance
  • 60 – 90% water
connective tissue
Connective Tissue
  • Serves to support, protect and bind together
  • Bone cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia, fat or adipose tissue
epithelial tissue
Epithelial Tissue
  • Protective covering on body surfaces
  • Skin, mucous membranes, lining of the heart, digestive, and respiratory organs, and glands
liquid tissue
Liquid Tissue
  • Blood and lymph, carries food, waste products, and hormones through the body
muscular tissue
Muscular Tissue
  • Contracts and moves the various parts of the body
nerve tissue
Nerve Tissue
  • Carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions
  • Special cells (neurons), which make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord
  • Groups of tissue designed to perform a specific function
  • Table 6-1 pp 115
body systems
Body Systems
  • Groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions
  • Ten (10) major systems
  • Table 6-2 pp 116
endocrine system pp 137
Endocrine Systempp 137
  • Group of specialized glands that affect growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body
  • Glands – specialized organs that remove certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds
Exocrine glands
  • Duct glands –produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts
    • Sweat (Sudoriferous)
    • Oil (Sebaceous) glands
    • Intestinal glands

Endocrine glands

    • Ductless glands release secretions called hormones
    • Pancreas, thyroid, adrenal glands, pituitary gland
      • Insulin, adrenaline and estrogen, stimulate functional activity or secretion
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste
  • Digestive enzymes are chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body
  • A soluble form
  • Takes about nine (9) hours to complete process
excretory system
Excretory System
  • Responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste
  • Metabolism of body produces toxins that must be removed to prevent poisoning of the body
organs of the excretory system
Organs of the Excretory System
  • Kidneys excrete urine
  • Liver discharges bile
  • Skin eliminates perspiration
  • Large intestines eliminates decomposed and undigested food
  • Lungs exhale carbon dioxide
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Located within the chest cavity
  • Enables breathing
    • Lungs and air passages
  • Lungs are spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide
  • Diaphragm is a muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing
    • Breathing in
    • Oxygen is absorbed into the blood
  • Exhalation
    • Breathing out
    • Carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Skin and its various accessory organs
  • Oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails
  • Covered in depth in chapter 7
circulatory system pp 131
Circulatory Systempp 131
  • Cardiovascular or vascular system
  • Controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body
    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
two 2 divisions
Two (2) Divisions
  • Blood Vascular
    • Heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
    • Distributes blood throughout the body
  • Lymph Vascular
    • Aid to the blood system
    • Lymph, lymphatics (lymph vessels), lymph nodes and other structures
  • Clear, yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymphatics
  • Carries waste and impurities away from the cells
the heart
The Heart
  • Body’s pump
  • Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps blood moving within the circulatory system
  • Pericardium – membrane that encloses the heart
  • Approximate size of your closed fist
  • Weighs approximately 9 ounces
  • Located in the chest cavity
  • Regulated by the Vagus or Tenth (10th) Cranial Nerve
  • 72 – 80 beats per minute resting
heart structure
Heart Structure
  • Four (4) chambers and four (4) valves
  • Right and Left Atrium
    • Thin walled upper chambers
  • Right and Left Ventricle
    • Thick walled lower chambers
  • Valves – between chambers allow the blood to flow in only one (1) direction
Blood is in constant and continuous circulation from the heart, throughout the body and back to the heart
  • Pulmonary Circulation
    • Blood flows from the heart to the lungs to be purified
  • Systemic Circulation
    • General circulation carried the blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart
circulation flow
Circulation Flow
  • Blood –from body – to right atrium
  • Right atrium – through tricuspid valve – to right ventricle
  • Right ventricle – to lungs – considered oxygen rich
  • Oxygen rich – returns to heart – left atrium
  • Left atrium – through mitral valve - to right ventricle –
  • Blood leaves left ventricle – to the body

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blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Tube like structures
  • Function is to transport blood to and from the heart to various tissues of the body
  • Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries
  • Largest is the aorta
  • Minute, thin-walled blood vessels connecting smaller arteries to the veins
  • Brings nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials
  • Thin-walled blood vessels less elastic than arteries
  • Cuplike valves that prevent backflow and carry blood containing waste products from capillaries to the heart
  • Located closer to the outer skin than arteries
  • Nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system
  • 8 – 10 pints in the human body
  • 1/20th of body weight
  • 80% water
  • 98.6°F - 36°C
  • Sticky and salty
  • Red in arteries (oxygen rich)
  • Blue in veins (oxygen depleted)
composition of blood
Composition of Blood
  • Red blood cells
    • Red corpuscles
    • Produced in red bone marrow
    • Hemoglobin – complex iron rich protein that blood its bright red color
    • Function is to carry oxygen to the body cells
White blood cells
    • White corpuscles
    • Leukocytes
    • Function of destroying disease-causing germs
  • Platelets
    • Thrombocytes
    • Much smaller than red blood cells
    • Contribute to the blood clotting process, which stops bleeding


    • Fluid part of blood in which red and white cells, and platelets flow
    • 90% water
    • Proteins, sugar, and oxygen
    • Function is to carry food and secretions to cells and take carbon dioxide away from cells
chief functions of blood
Chief Functions of Blood
  • Carries water, oxygen, food and secretions to the body
  • Carries away carbon dioxide and waste products to be eliminated through lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestines
  • Equalize body temperature – protecting from extreme heat/cold

Protects body from pathogenic bacteria and infections through white blood cells

  • Closes injured minute blood vessels by forming clots – preventing loss of blood
the lymph vascular system
The Lymph Vascular System
  • Lymphatic System
  • Acts as an aid to the blood system
  • Lymph is circulated through the lymphatic vessels and filtered by the lymph nodes
    • (gland like bodies in the lymphatic vessels)
    • Filtering process helps to fight infection
primary functions of the lymphatic system
Primary Functions Of the Lymphatic System
  • Carry nourishment
  • Defense against bacteria/toxins
  • Remove waste from body to blood
  • Provide suitable fluid environment for cells
arteries of the head face and neck
Arteries of the Head, face and Neck
  • Common carotid arteries
    • Main source of blood supply to the head, face and neck
    • Located on either side of neck
    • Divided into the internal and external branch
Internal carotid artery
    • Supplies blood to brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear
  • External carotid artery
    • Supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and side of head

Facial artery

    • External maxillary supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose
  • Superficial temporal artery
    • Continuation of external carotid artery
    • Supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side and top of head
Frontal artery
    • Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids
  • Parietal artery
    • Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head

Middle temporal artery

    • Supplies blood to the temples
  • Anterior auricular artery
    • Supplies blood to the front part of the ear
Occipital artery
    • Supplies blood to the skin and muscle of the scalp and back of head to the crown
  • Posterior auricular artery
    • Supplies blood to the scalp area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear

Supraorbital artery

    • Supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead
  • Infraorbital artery
    • Supplies blood to the muscles of the eye
veins of the head face and neck
Veins of the head, face and Neck
  • Internal Jugular
  • External Jugular
  • Blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck flow on each side of the head
blood supply of the arm and hand
Blood Supply of the Arm and Hand
  • Ulnar artery
    • Supply blood to the pinkie finger side of the arm and palm of the hand
  • Radial artery
    • Supply blood to the thumb side of the arm back of the hand
blood supply to the lower leg and foot
Blood Supply to the Lower Leg and Foot
  • Popliteal artery
    • Divides in two (2)
  • Anterior tibial
    • Goes to the foot
    • Dorsalis pedis in supplies blood to the foot
  • Posterior tibial