STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

strengthening structures using frp composite materials n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS

play fullscreen
1 / 89
STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS
363 Views
Download Presentation
novia
Download Presentation

STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. STRENGTHENING STRUCTURES USING FRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS DAMIAN I. KACHLAKEV, Ph.D., P.E. California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo

  2. WHY COMPOSITES? • ADVANTAGES OVER TRADITIONAL MATERIALS • CORROSION RESISTANCE • HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO • LOW MAINTENANCE • EXTENDED SERVICE LIFE • DESIGN FLEXIBILITY

  3. COMPOSITES DEFINITION • A combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin, filler, etc.), differing in form or composition on a macroscale. The constituents retain their identities, i.e.., they do not dissolve or merge into each other, although they act in concert. Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between each other.

  4. DEFINITION Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites are defined as: “A matrix of polymeric material that is reinforced by fibers or other reinforcing material”

  5. COMPOSITES MARKETS • TRANSPORTATION • CONSTRUCTION • MARINE • CORROSION-RESISTANT • CONSUMER • ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC • APPLIANCES/BUSINESS • AIRCRAFT/DEFENSE

  6. U.S. COMPOSITES SHIPMENTS - 1996 MARKET SHARE SEMI-ANNUAL STATISTICAL REPORT - AUGUST 26, 1996 Aircraft/Aerospace 0.7% Transportation 30.6% Construction 20% Other- 3.4% Consumer Products - 6% Marine - 11.6% Electrical/ Electronic - 10% Appliance/Business Equipment - 5.3% Corrosion-Resistant Equipment - 12.4% Includes reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic resin composites, reinforcements and fillers. SOURCE: SPI Composites Institute

  7. Infrastructure Benefits • HIGH STRENGTH/WEIGHT RATIO • ORIENTATED STRENGTH • DESIGN FLEXIBILITY • LIGHTWEIGHT • CORROSION RESISTANCE • LOW MAINTENANCE/LONG-TERM DURABILITY • LARGE PART SIZE POSSIBLE • TAILORED AESTHETIC APPEARANCE • DIMENSIONAL STABILITY • LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY • LOW INSTALLED COSTS

  8. FRP COMPOSITE CONSTITUENTS • RESINS (POLYMERS) • REINFORCEMENTS • FILLERS • ADDITIVES

  9. MATERIALS: RESINS • PRIMARY FUNCTION: “TO TRANSFER STRESS BETWEEN REINFORCING FIBERS AND TO PROTECT THEM FROM MECHANICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE” • TYPES: • THERMOSET • THERMOPLASTIC

  10. RESINS • THERMOSET • POLYESTER • VINYL ESTER • EPOXY • PHENOLIC • POLYURETHANE

  11. RESINS • THERMOPLASTIC • ACETAL • ACRYRONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (ABS) • NYLON • POLYETHYLENE (PE) • POLYPROPYLENE (PP) • POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET)

  12. RESINS • THERMOSET ADVANTAGES • THERMAL STABILITY • CHEMICAL RESISTANCE • REDUCED CREEP AND STRESS RELAXATION • LOW VISCOSITY- EXCELLENT FOR FIBER ORIENTATION • COMMON MATERIAL WITH FABRICATORS

  13. RESINS • THERMOPLASTIC ADVANTAGES • ROOM TEMPERATURE MATERIAL STORAGE • RAPID, LOW COST FORMING • REFORMABLE • FORMING PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES

  14. POLYESTERS • LOW COST • EXTREME PROCESSING VERSATILITY • LONG HISTORY OF PERFORMANCE • MAJOR USES: • Transportation • Construction • Marine

  15. VINYL ESTER • SIMILAR TO POLYESTER • EXCELLENT MECHANICAL & FATIGUE PROPERTIES • EXCELLENT CHEMICAL RESISTANCE • MAJOR USES: • Corrosion Applications - Pipes, Tanks, & Ducts

  16. EPOXY • EXCELLENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES • GOOD FATIGUE RESISTANCE • LOW SHRINKAGE • GOOD HEAT AND CHEMICAL RESISTANCE • MAJOR USES: • FRP Strengthening Systems • FRP Rebars • FRP Stay-in-Place Forms

  17. PHENOLICS • EXCELLENT FIRE RETARDANCE • LOW SMOKE & TOXICITY EMISSIONS • HIGH STRENGTH AT HIGH TEMPERATURES • MAJOR USES: • Mass Transit - Fire Resistance & High Temperature • Ducting

  18. POLYURETHANE • TOUGH • GOOD IMPACT RESISTANCE • GOOD SURFACE QUALITY • MAJOR USES: • Bumper Beams, Automotive Panels

  19. SUMMARY: POLYMERS • WIDE VARIETY AVAILABLE • SELECTION BASED ON: • PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PRODUCT • FABRICATION PROCESS REQUIREMENTS

  20. Physical Properties of Thermosetting Resins Used in Structural Composites

  21. MATERIAL: FIBERREINFORCEMENTS • PRIMARY FUNCTION: “CARRY LOAD ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE FIBER, PROVIDES STRENGTH AND OR STIFFNESS IN ONE DIRECTION” • CAN BE ORIENTED TO PROVIDE PROPERTIES IN DIRECTIONS OF PRIMARY LOADS

  22. REINFORCEMENTS • NATURAL • MAN-MADE • MANY VARIETIES COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE

  23. MAN-MADE FIBERS • ARAMID • BORON • CARBON/GRAPHITE • GLASS • NYLON • POLYESTER • POLYETHYLENE • POLYPROPYLENE

  24. FIBER PROPERTIESDENSITY (g/cm3)

  25. FIBER PROPERTIESTENSILE STRENGTH x103 psi

  26. FIBER PROPERTIESSTRAIN TO FAILURE (%)

  27. FIBER PROPERTIESTENSILE MODULUS 106 psi

  28. FIBER PROPERTIESCTE - Longitudinal x10-6/0C

  29. FIBER PROPERTIESTHERMAL CONDUCTIVITY x10-6/0C BTU-in/hr-ft2 - 0F

  30. FIBER REINFORCEMENT • GLASS (E-GLASS) • MOST COMMON FIBER USED • HIGH STRENGTH • GOOD WATER RESISTANCE • GOOD ELECTRIC INSULATING PROPERTIES • LOW STIFFNESS

  31. GLASS TYPES • E-GLASS • S-GLASS • C-GLASS • ECR-GLASS • AR-GLASS

  32. FIBER REINFORCEMENT • ARAMID (KEVLAR) • SUPERIOR RESISTANCE TO DAMAGE (ENERGY ABSORBER) • GOOD IN TENSION APPLICATIONS (CABLES, TENDONS) • MODERATE STIFFNESS • MORE EXPENSIVE THAN GLASS

  33. FIBER REINFORCEMENT • CARBON • GOOD MODULUS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES • EXCELLENT STIFFNESS • MORE EXPENSIVE THAN GLASS • BRITTLE • LOW ELECTRIC INSULATING PROPERTIES

  34. TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL FIBERS

  35. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF REINFORCING FIBERS

  36. FIBER ORIENTATION • ANISOTROPIC • UNIDIRECTIONAL • BIAS - TAILORED DIRECTION • 0O - flexural strengthening • 90O - column wraps • + /- 45O - shear strengthening • ANGLE VARIES BY APPLICATION

  37. DEGREE OF ANISOTROPY OF FRP COMPOSITES

  38. PROPERTIES OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES

  39. ELASTIC AND SHEAR MODULI OF FRP COMPOSITES

  40. REINFORCEMENTSSUMMARY • TAILORING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES • TYPE OF FIBER • PERCENTAGE OF FIBER • ORIENTATION OF FIBER

  41. COMPARISON OF AXIAL AND FLEXURAL EFFICIENCY OF FRP SYSTEMS

  42. DESIGN VARIABLESFOR COMPOSITES • TYPE OF FIBER • PERCENTAGE OF FIBER or FIBER VOLUME • ORIENTATION OF FIBER • 0o, 90o, +45o, -45o • TYPE OF POLYMER (RESIN) • COST • VOLUME OF PRODUCT - MANUFACTURING METHOD

  43. DESIGN VARIABLESFOR COMPOSITES • PHYSICAL: • tensile strength • compression strength • stiffness • weight, etc. • ENVIRONMENTAL: • Fire • UV • Corrosion Resistance

  44. TAILORING COMPOSITE PROPERTIES • MAJOR FEATURE • PLACE MATERIALS WHERE NEEDED - ORIENTED STRENGTH • LONGITUDINAL • TRANSVERSE • or between • STRENGTH • STIFFNESS • FIRE RETARDANCY

  45. STRUCTURAL DESIGN APPROACH FOR COMPOSITES

  46. SPECIFIC MODULUS AND STRENGTH OF FRP COMPOSITE

  47. FLOW CHART FOR DESIGN OF FRP COMPOSITES

  48. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES • Hand Lay-up/Spray-up • Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) • Compression Molding • Injection Molding • Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding (RRIM) • Pultrusion • Filament Winding • Vacuum Assisted RTM (Va-RTM) • Centrifugal Casting

  49. PROCESS CHARACTERISTICSHand Lay-up/Spray-up • MAX SIZE: Unlimited • PART GEOMETRY: Simple - Complex • PRODUCTION VOLUME: Low - Med • CYCLE TIME: Slow • SURFACE FINISH: Good - Excellent • TOOLING COST: Low • EQUIPMENT COST: Low

  50. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICSPultrusion • CONSTANT CROSS SECTION • CONTINUOUS LENGTH • HIGH ORIENTED STRENGTHS • COMPLEX PROFILES POSSIBLE • HYBRID REINFORCEMENTS