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Education Policy Committee . Kati Haycock President The Education Trust . ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICA: Where Are We? What Can We Do? Critical Steps for Nevada. Las Vegas Metro Chamber of Commerce Las Vegas, NV April, 2013. America: Two Enduring Stories.

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education policy committee
Education Policy Committee

Kati Haycock

President

The Education Trust

slide2

ACHIEVEMENT

IN AMERICA:

Where Are We? What Can

We Do? Critical Steps for

Nevada

Las Vegas Metro Chamber of Commerce

Las Vegas, NV April, 2013

work hard and you can become anything you want to be

1. Land of Opportunity:

Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.

2 generational advancement

2. Generational Advancement:

Through hard work, each generation of parents can assure a better life — and better education — for their children.

powerful narratives

Powerful narratives.

Fast slipping away.

earnings among the lowest income families have declined even amid big increases at the top
Earnings among the lowest income families have declined, even amid big increases at the top.

Source: The College Board, “Trends in College Pricing 2011” (New York: College Board, 2010), Figure 16A.

slide9

Instead of being the most equal, the U.S. has the third highest income inequality among OECD nations.

United States

Note: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequality.

Source: United Nations, U.N. data, http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?q=gini&id=271: 2011

u s intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980 but has sharply declined since
U.S. intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980, but has sharply declined since.

Source: Daniel Aaronson and Bhashkar Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.,1940 to 2000. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP 2005-12: Dec. 2005.

slide12
Now, instead of being the “land of opportunity,” the U.S. has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobility.

Source: Tom Hertz, “Understanding Mobility in America” (Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, 2006).

at the macro level better and more equal education is not the only answer

At the macro level, better and more equal education is not the only answer.

But at the individual level, it really is.

more education more income
More Education=More Income

Note: Data include full-time, year-round workers, those working less than full-time year-round, and those who did not work.

Julian and Kominski, “Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates,” U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.

more education less unemployment
More Education=Less Unemployment

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table A-4, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t04htm

more education more likely to vote
More Education=More Likely to Vote

Note: Data include both those who are and are not registered to vote.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008,” May 2010

slide18

Note: Data represent percentage of total population that reported volunteering from September 2008 to September 2009

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Volunteering in the United States 2009” (2010)

more education more likely to be in very good or excellent health
More Education=More likely to be in “Very Good” or “Excellent” Health

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission for a Healthier America, 2009

slide21

What schools and collegesdo, in other words, is hugely important to our economy, our democracy, and our society.

first some good news

First, some good news.

After more than a decade of fairly flat achievement and stagnant or growing gaps in K-12, we appear to be turning the corner with our elementary students.

fourth grade reading naep ltt record performance with gap narrowing
Fourth-Grade Reading: NAEP LTTRecord performance with gap narrowing

*Denotes previous assessment format

NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

fourth grade math naep ltt record performance with gap narrowing
Fourth-Grade Math: NAEP LTTRecord performance with gap narrowing

*Denotes previous assessment format

Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

1996 naep grade 4 math
1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

2011 naep grade 4 math
2011 NAEP Grade 4 Math

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

over the last decade all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed
Over the last decade, all groups have steadily improved and gaps have narrowed

*Accommodations not permitted

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

clearly much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school

Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school.

Too many students still enter high school way behind.

but at least we have some traction on elementary and middle school problems

But at least we have some traction on elementary and middle school problems.

The same is NOT true

of our high schools.

achievement is flat in reading
Achievement is flat in reading.

NAEP Long-Term Trends, NCES (2004)

math achievement is flat over time
Math achievement is flat over time.

* Denotes previous assessment format

National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress

12 th grade reading no progress gaps wider than 1988
12th-Grade Reading: No progress, gaps wider than 1988

*Denotes previous assessment format

NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

12 th grade math results mostly flat gaps same or widening
12th-Grade Math: Results mostly flat, gaps same or widening

*Denotes previous assessment format

NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

slide39

Students of color are less likely to graduate from high school on time.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008-09” (2011).

slide40

Moreover, no matter how you cut the data, our students aren’t doing well compared with their peers in other countries.

of 34 oecd countries the u s ranks 12 th in reading literacy

Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average

Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 12th in reading literacy.

U.S.A.

OECD

“Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

of 34 oecd countries the u s ranks 17 th in science

Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average

Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 17th in science.

U.S.A.

“Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

of 34 oecd countries the u s ranks 25 th in math

Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average

Of 34 OECD countries, the U.S. ranks 25th in math.

U.S.A.

“Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010

slide45
Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fourth largest science gap between high-SES and low-SES students.

U.S.A.

OECD

PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b

slide46
Among OECD countries, the U.S. has the fifth largest reading gap between high-SES and low-SES students.

U.S.A.

OECD

PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1

slide47

We used to make up for at least some of this by sending more of our students to college than anybody else.

slide48

Though no longer #1, we’re still relatively strong in overall educational attainment

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

slide49

But our world standing drops to 15th for younger adults

United States

OECD Average

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

slide50

We’re near the bottom in intergenerational progress

OECD Average

United States

Note: Adults with a postsecondary degree include those who have completed either a tertiary-type B program (programs that last for at least two years, are skill-based, and prepare students for direct entry into the labor market) or a tertiary-type A program (programs that last at least three, but usually four, years, are largely theory-based, and provide qualifications for entry into highly-skilled professions or advanced research programs)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2011 (2011)

slide53

Students of Color Less than Half as Likely to Exceed State Reading Standards

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide54

Students of Color 2-3 Times More Likely to Perform at Lowest Level in Math

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide55

Students of Color More Likely to Fall Short of State Reading Standards in High School

Source: Nevada Department of Education

low graduation rates for all groups of students
Low Graduation Rates for All Groups of Students

Source: NCES, “ Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2009-10: First Look,” (2013), http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013309.pdf.

nevada s students improving faster than national average in reading
Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Reading

Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

latino students in nevada improved at one of the fastest rates nationwide
Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide

Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

low income students in nevada improved nearly twice as fast as low income students nationwide
Low-Income Students in Nevada Improved Nearly Twice as Fast as Low-Income Students Nationwide

Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

nevada s students improving faster than national average in math
Nevada’s Students Improving Faster than National Average in Math

Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

latino students in nevada improved at one of the fastest rates nationwide1
Latino Students in Nevada Improved at One of the Fastest Rates Nationwide

Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES.

nevada s overall performance trails other states
Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

nevada s overall performance trails other states1
Nevada’s Overall Performance Trails Other States

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

nevada schools more diverse than many states
Nevada Schools: More Diverse Than Many States

Source: Nevada Department of Education

black students below national average in nevada
Black Students Below National Average in Nevada

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

nevada s white students below the national average
Nevada’s White Students Below the National Average

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

in nevada latino students below the national average for latinos 33 rd
In Nevada, Latino Students Below the National Average for Latinos (33rd)

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 238)

2003 grade 4 naep reading latino 2 nd from bottom
2003 Grade 4 NAEP ReadingLatino (2nd from bottom)

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP

higher income students in nevada trail peers nationwide
Higher Income Students in NevadaTrail Peers Nationwide

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

lower income students in nevada behind peers in other states 37 th
Lower Income Students in Nevada Behind Peers in Other States (37th)

NV

NAEP Data Explorer, NCES (Proficient Scale Score = 299)

2003 grade 8 naep math low income 42nd
2003 Grade 8 NAEP MathLow Income (42nd)

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP

relatively few of nevada s graduates go on to college
Relatively few of Nevada’s graduates go on to college

Nevada

Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, 1986-2008”

slide87
When High School Dropout Rate is Factored In, the Picture is Worse(HS Grad Rate x College Continuation Rate, 2008)

45.8%

Postsecondary Education Opportunity, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State, 1986--2008”

slide89
Among those who start in four-year colleges, Nevada has one of the lowest Bachelor’s degree attainment rates

Nevada

First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years

U.S. Department of Education , 2011. United States Education Dashboard. http://dashboard.ed.gov/statedetail.aspx?i=k&id=0&wt=40

six year college graduation rates hispanic 2009
Six-Year College Graduation Rates Hispanic, 2009

62.5%

First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years

U.S. Department of Education , 2011. United States Education Dashboard. http://dashboard.ed.gov/statedetail.aspx?i=k&id=0&wt=40

six year college graduation rates african american 2009
Six-Year College Graduation Rates African American, 2009

40%

First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years

U.S. Department of Education , 2011. United States Education Dashboard. http://dashboard.ed.gov/statedetail.aspx?i=k&id=0&wt=40

six year college graduation rates white 2009
Six-Year College Graduation Rates White, 2009

72.9%

First-time, full-time freshmen completing a BA within 6 years

U.S. Department of Education , 2011. United States Education Dashboard. http://dashboard.ed.gov/statedetail.aspx?i=k&id=0&wt=40

slide93

Only place Nevada’s performance is strong relative to other states?Community College Student Success

among those in associate s programs nevada has one of the highest completion rates
Among those in Associate’s programs, Nevada has one of the highest completion rates

Nevada

First-time, full-time freshmen completing an AA or certificate within 3 years

U.S. Department of Education , 2011. United States Education Dashboard. http://dashboard.ed.gov/statedetail.aspx?i=l&id=0&wt=40

nevada has one of the lowest rates of young adults with at least an associate s degree
Nevada has one of the lowest rates of young adults with at least an associate’s degree

Nevada

2009 American Community Survey data from NCHEMS Information Center , http://www.higheredinfo.org/dbrowser/?level=nation&mode=data&state=0&submeasure=239

slide97

In sum, Nevada is below average in a country whose results are increasingly below the international average.

Not a place you want to be.

first stop for a moment and celebrate the progress

First, stop for a moment and celebrate the progress.

Don’t forget to say thanks to the educators whose work made this possible.

second don t accept excuses for why progress can t continue even accelerate for these kids

Second, don’t accept excuses for why progress can’t continue—even accelerate—for “these” kids.

what we hear many say
What we hear many say:
  • They’re poor.
  • They don’t speak English.
  • Their parents don’t care.
  • They come to school without breakfast.
  • They don’t have enough books.
  • They don’t have enough parents.
on the college level we hear much the same thing
On the college level, we hear much the same thing:
  • Our students are unprepared.
  • They come from a culture of poverty.
  • They have to work too many hours.
  • Their families don’t value college education.
slide103

But if there’s truly nothing that we can do, why are low-income students and students of color performing so much higher in some schools? Some colleges? Even some whole states?

mary mcleod bethune elementary school new orleans louisiana
Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary SchoolNew Orleans, Louisiana
  • 341 students in grades PK – 6
    • 97% African American
  • 88% Low Income

Note: Enrollment and demographic data are from 2009-2010

Louisiana Department of Education

big gains at bethune elementary
Big Gains at Bethune Elementary

Louisiana Department of Education

exceeding state averages at bethune elementary
Exceeding State Averages at Bethune Elementary

Louisiana Department of Education

outperforming the state at bethune elementary
Outperforming the Stateat Bethune Elementary

Source: Louisiana Department of Education

slide108

Halle Hewetson Elementary SchoolLas Vegas, NV

  • 938 students in grades PK – 5
    • 87% Latino
    • 5% African American
  • 100% Low Income
  • 62% Limited English
  • Proficient

Note: Data are for 2011-12 school year

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide109

Big Improvementat Halle Hewetson Elementary

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide110

Outperforming the Stateat Halle Hewetson Elementary

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide111

Outperforming the Stateat Halle Hewetson Elementary

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide112

Exceeding State Standards

at Halle Hewetson Elementary

Source: Nevada Department of Education

slide114

In Boston and Houston, Latino students made far faster progress between 2003 and 2011 than in the country as a whole

Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations .

Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

slide115

African-American students in Atlanta and Boston improved at twice the rate of their counterparts nationally

Note: Chart includes only districts that participated in, and had members of this specific subgroup, in both the 2003 and 2011 NAEP TUDA administrations .

Source: NCES, NAEP Data Explorer

colleges can close gaps too virginia commonwealth university
Colleges Can Close Gaps, Too:Virginia Commonwealth University

Six-Year Graduation Rates at VCU (2004-2010)

First-time, full-time freshmen who graduated from the same college they started from 6 years ago

Source: Education Trust analysis of IPEDS data.

slide117

You can help by pointing to the successes—here in Nevada and elsewhere--and by pressing for similar results.

slide119

High quality pre-school is the best investment we can make. It pays to prevent problems rather than ameliorate them later.

but adopting the standards and the new tests isn t enough

But adopting the standards and the new tests isn’t enough.

You’ve got to make sure that all students take the courses in high school that lead to college readiness.

moreover a few more workshops on the new standards won t do the trick

Moreover, a few more “workshops” on the new standards won’t do the trick.

We need to help teachers remake what they do every day, especially the assignments they give to their students.

grade 10 writing assignment
Grade 10 Writing Assignment

A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

grade 10 writing assignment1
Grade 10 Writing Assignment

Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

slide126

Grade 7 Writing Assignment

Essay on Anne Frank

Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel.

Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book

You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.

Source:Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.

slide127

Grade 7 Writing Assignment

  • My Best Friend:
  • A chore I hate:
  • A car I want:
  • My heartthrob:

Source:Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.

high performing schools and districts
High Performing Schools and Districts
  • Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it;
  • Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments;
  • Have regular vehicle to assure common marking standards;
  • Assess students regularly to measure progress; and,
  • Don’t leave student supports to chance.
in other words they strive for consistency in everything they do

In other words, they strive for consistency in everything they do.

And they bring that consistency to school discipline, as well.

students in dallas gain more in math with effective teachers one year growth from 3 rd 4 th grade
Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with Effective Teachers: One Year Growth From 3rd-4th Grade

Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

differences in teacher effectiveness account for large differences in student learning
DIFFERENCES IN TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS ACCOUNT FOR LARGE DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT LEARNING

The distribution of value-added

scores for ELA teachers in LAUSD

slide133

ACCESS TO MULTIPLE EFFECTIVE TEACHERS CAN DRAMATICALLY AFFECT STUDENT LEARNING

CST math proficiency trends for second-graders at ‘Below Basic’ or ‘Far Below Basic’ in 2007 who subsequently had three consecutive high or low value-added teachers

slide135

BUT…

We pretend that there aren’t.

make sure your state and districts are acting on this knowledge by
Make sure your state and districts are acting on this knowledge by:
  • Putting into place an honest evaluation system, that takes student growth into account;
  • Training principals and expert teachers in evaluation and feedback techniques;
  • Providing support to teachers who are struggling;
  • Working hard to hold onto the strongest ones, and chasing out the weak ones; and,
  • Assuring that all groups of children get their fair share of strong teachers.
current college completion rates 4 year colleges
Current College Completion Rates:4-Year Colleges
  • Fewer than 4 in 10 (38%) entering freshmen obtain a bachelor’s degree within 4 years
  • Within six years of entry, that proportion rises to just under 6 in 10 (58%)
  • If you go beyond IPEDS, and look at graduation from ANY institution, number grows to about two-thirds.

NCES (March 2012). First Look: Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2009; Graduation Rates, 2003 and 2006 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics Fiscal Year 2009. Ed Trust analysis of BPS:09.

but graduation rates vary widely across the nation s postsecondary institutions
But graduation rates vary widely across the nation’s postsecondary institutions

Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2010.

slide143

Some of these differences are clearly attributable to differences in student preparation and/or institutional mission.

n/a

slide144

But…when you dig underneath the averages, one thing is very clear:Some colleges are far more successful than their students’ “stats” would suggest.

Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset 2009.

slide146

Colleges need to be pressed to work harder to make sure those they admit actually get the degrees they are seeking.

true gaps in achievement begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door

True, gaps in achievement begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door.

But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.

funding gaps within states national inequities in state and local revenue per student
Funding Gaps Within States: National inequities in state and local revenue per student

Source: Education Trust analyses of U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year.

students in poor schools receive as for work that would earn cs in affluent schools
Students in poor schools receive As for work that would earn Cs in affluent schools.

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.

slide154

Even African-American students with high math performance in fifth grade are unlikely to be placed in algebra in eighth grade

Source: NCES, “Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K)” (2010).

students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer calculus
Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer calculus.

Percent of Schools Offering Calculus

Source: U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights , Civil Rights Data Collection

slide156

And we assign them disproportionately to our least experienced, least well-educated, and least effective teachers…

students at high minority schools more likely to be taught by novice teachers
Students at high-minority schools more likely to be taught by novice* teachers.

Note: High minority school: 75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school: 10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience.

Source: Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.

slide158
Math classes at high-poverty, high-minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field* teachers.

Note: High-poverty school: 55 percent or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. Low-poverty school :15 percent or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. High-minority school: 78 percent or more of the students are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school : 12 percent or fewer of the students are non-white students.

*Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (math, science, social studies, English) across the U.S.

Source: Education Trust Analysis of 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey data.

slide159
Tennessee: High-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least effective” teachers.

Note: High poverty/high minority means at least 75 percent of students qualify for FRPL and at least 75 percent are minority.

Source: Tennessee Department of Education 2007. “Tennessee’s Most Effective Teachers: Are they assigned to the schools that need them most?” http://tennessee.gov/education/nclb/doc/TeacherEffectiveness2007_03.pdf.

los angeles black latino students have fewer highly effective teachers more weak ones
Los Angeles: Black, Latino students have fewer highly effective teachers, more weak ones.

READING/LANGUAGE ARTS

Latino and black students are:

3X as likely to get low- effectiveness teachers

½ as likely to get highly effective teachers

Source: Education Trust—West, Learning Denied, 2012.

the results are devastating

The results are devastating.

Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind.

slide163

We are taking the diversity that should be our competitive advantage in the international marketplace, and obliterating it.

Don’t just stand by and watch, even if they are not “your” kids. Speak up. Demand the data. Demand progress.

slide164

Download this presentation and learn more about the Education Trust. www.edtrust.org

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