Benefits of homework • Teaches children how to take responsibility for tasks and work independently • Specifically, helps children to learn how to plan and organize tasks, manage time, make choices, and problem solve
Homework Strategies • Two key strategies to reduce homework hassles. • (1) Homework Routines • Establish clear routines regarding homework • i.e., when and where homework gets done and having daily schedules for homework • It is easier to complete tasks when they are associated with specific routines • This also establishes a sense of order in your child’s life that they can apply to later schooling and work • (2) Incentives • Children who are not motivated by the enjoyment of doing homework may be motivated to complete homework by earning high grades Incentive = high grade • Some children however are not motived by grades • Parents can use incentives or rewards to help children complete their homework • Two categories of incentive systems: simple and elaborate
Homework Routines • Step 1. Location • Designate a location in the house where homework will be done. • Dependent on your child and the family culture. • E.g., bedroom vs. kitchen table and alone vs. with parents • Both you and your child should discuss the pros and cons of different settings to agree on a location.
Homework Routines • Step 2. Homework Center • After determining the where homework will be completed, set up the location as a ‘homework center’ • Make sure there is an area to work that its able to accommodate the necessary materials needed for completing the assignments • Have some school supplied in this areas that your children may need to use • E.g., pencils, pens, colored markers, rulers, scissors,etc. • Also if this areas is also used to other things (i.e.,the dining room table), then your child can keep the supplies in a portable crate or bin (e.g., a Homework Caddy. • If possible, it should also have a monthly calendar where your child can keep track of long-term assignments.
Homework Routines • Step 3. Homework time • Establish a homework time • Your child should get in the habit of doing homework at the same time every day. • This varies depending on the child • Some need a break right after school (i.e., to exercise and/or have a snack) • Others need to do homework while they are still school mode (i.e., right after school) • Generally, the earlier the better (before dinner) • Later it gets, the more tired the child becomes and the more slowly he/she works.
Homework Caddy • A plastic “tool caddy’ with sturdy carrying handle • At least one pocket large enough for a clipboard, and several small pockets the right size for pens. • Note you can finds these both at hardware stores and craft stores • Clipboard with two kinds of paper: • Binder paper • Plain white paper • Writing utensils: Pens, pencils, colored pencils, pencil sharpener • 6-inch ruler • White out • Glue stick • Scissors • Small stapler • Tape dispenser • %’’ x 8’’ index card • Options: sticky-back felt sharps and glitter glue
Homework Routines • Step 4. Homework Schedule • Each homework session should begin with you and your child setting up a homework schedule. • Review all the assignments • Make sure your child understands them and has the necessary materials • Have your child to estimate how long it will take to complete each assignment. • Have your child determine when they will begin each assignment. • Determine if your child needs help with any assignment, at the beginning • This way the start times can take into account parent availability.
Have a routine (after school, evening?) • Free from interruption • Well lit • Area large enough to write (not on a bed!!) • Comfortable temperature • Materials readily available The Basics to Remember…
Incentive Systems • Simple incentive systems. • Simplest incentive system is reminding the child of a fun activity to do when homework is done. • e.g., a favorite television show, video or computer game time, using a cellphone, or playing a game. • "First take out the trash, then you can have chocolate chip cookies.” • Having something to look forward to can be effective at motivating children and teens to do something they don’t want to do.
Incentive Systems • Elaborate incentive systems. • Involve more planning and more work on the part of parents • At times are necessary to address more significant homework problems. • These may involve a token economy • This consists of a structure for earning points that could be used to "purchase" privileges or rewards • Also can involve a system that provides greater reward for accomplishing more difficult homework tasks • Most effective when parents and children develop them together. • Allowing children to provide input gives them a sense of control and ownership. • Children are generally realistic in setting goals and deciding on rewards and penalties
Incentive Systems • Building in breaks. • Good for childrenwho cannot complete all of their homework without a small reward. • It may be useful with these children to identify when breaks will occur. • specific time intervals (every 15 minutes)or after an activity is completed • Discuss the length of the breaks and what will be done during the breaks • Building in choice. • Effective for children who resist homework • Incorporated into the order in which the child agrees to complete assignments and the schedule they will follow to get the work done. • Helps motivate children and reduce power struggles
Developing Incentive Systems • Step 1. Describe the problem behaviors. • Parents and children decide which behaviors are causing problems at homework time. • e.g., putting homework off to the last, forgetting materials or to write down assignments, rushing through their work and making careless mistakes, dilly-dallying over assignmentsetc. • Be as specific as possible when describing the problem behavior(s). • Described as behaviors that can be seen or heard. • Step 2. Set a goal. • Should relates directly to the problem behavior. • E.g., if not writing down assignments is the problem, the goal might be: ”Johnny will write down his assignments in his assignment book for every class."
Developing Incentive Systems • Step 3. Rewards and penalties. • Rewards • Work best when children have a menu of rewards to choose from (no one reward will be attractive for long). • Recommended that a point system is used • Points can be earned for the goal behaviors and traded in for the reward the child wants to earn. • The menu should include both large and small rewards • Penalties • Build penalties into the system • Usually a loss of a privilege • If your child is earning more penalties than rewards, then the program needs to be revised so that your child can be more successful. • Step 4. Homework contract. • It should specify the expected behavior of the child and the parents' roles and responsibilities will be. • When the contract is in place, it should reduce some of the tension parents and kids often experience around homework. • Also important to praise the child for following the contract. • It is rare incentive system that works the first time. • Expect to try it out and redesign it to work the kinks out.
Involving Siblings • Sometimes parents say that it is difficult to have and incentive system for one child and not for all children • It appears that they are "rewarding" children with behavior problems while neglecting those without. • Most siblings understand if it is explained to them carefully. • However, if there are problems, here are some choices: • (a) Have a similar system for all children with appropriate goals • Every child has something they could improve • (b) Have an informal arrangement with the other children in the family • From time to time take then to do something special • (c) Have the child earn rewards that benefit the whole family • (e.g., eating out at a favorite restaurant).
Adaptations and Further Support • These strategies will need to be adapted to the particular age and developmental level of your child. • Greater supervision and involvement on the part of parents is the norm with children during the elementary school years. • Whereas in high school, most parents can pull back and let their children take more control over homework schedules. • Middle school is often the turning point • Parents need to make decisions about how involved to be in homework based on their children’s developmental level. • At any point if significant problems arise, consult your child's teacher, guidance counselor, and/or school psychologist.
Overcoming Studying Barriers My Favorite TV Show is on! DVR, digital media, reruns. Homework time? I’m Tired! How much sleep? New Bed time? Shuffle schedule. I don’t have the time. Examine and shuffle schedule. I don’t know how to do it. Can I help? What resources are available? I don’t have any homework and/or I lost it Communication with teacher Others?
Acronyms • ROY G. BIV • HOMES - Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior. Use this to remember the names of the great lakes.
Silly Sentences • EGBDF :Every Good Boy Does Fine • MVEMJSUNP: My very eager mother just served us nine pizzas. • PEMDAS - Please excuse my dear aunt sally. Use this in math class to determine which part of an equation to solve first. Solve parentheses first, then factor exponents, multiply, divide, add and, finally, subtract.
Chunking • 412-749-4013 Phone numbers • 498-96-8654: Social security numbers
Rhymes/Songs • “I” before “e” except after “c” • Alphabet Song • Days of the Week
Loci strategy • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NROegsMqNc
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Apps for Studying • Note taking app in the form of a spider diagram • Color the spider diagram to make things stand out. • Makes things easier to read • Flashcards are an effective way to memorize information • Student can use text, pictures and audio to create the perfect stack of (digital) flashcards • Also allows students t, search the database to borrow someone else's flashcards.
Apps for Studying • Free and can be used on Mac’s, PC, iphones and Android Devices • Encourages users to ask questions about what they are learning to facilitate active recall. • Allows user to play audio and video. • Uses the Cornell note taking system • 1st portion of notes is the “note” itself • 2nd portion are questions or thoughts on the note • 3rd portion is a summary of what was learned • Notes can be played back! • A program for studying. • Facts are entered into the system and brought up for you to review. • Overtime, the program learns how long it takes you to forget something and prompts you with facts just before you usually forget!
A learning program. • Can choose from premade lessons or construct your own. • Can use a variety of lesson type (audio, visual, combined, etc.) • Can ask different kids of questions to help retention Apps for Studying • Slader is a website that provides step by step answers to problems that are in your textbook. The answers are created by users and can be accessed, step by step by either paying for the step or earning credit by answering problems yourself and showing your work!
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APPs for Studying Stylize, edit, and animate your media http://www.mathfactcafe.com/worksheet/money/
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Apps for Organization • Three major features: • Calendar • Homework • Class profile • Allows students to keep track of classes homework and project assignments, and due dates all in one place. • Helpful in teaching students how to be organized and providing a platform in which to stay organized. • Helps with time management • Allows students to input their class schedule and homework into a built-in planner • Alerts the students of approaching deadlines • Keeps track of their grades • Organizes their extracurricular schedule • Counts down to their next class • Works for the Mac, iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch. myHomework
Apps for Organization • A note-taking app • For both Apple and Android devices. • Allows students to easily create infinitely expanding and organized notes using a tiered note system. • Can be used to teach young students how to draft properly organized notes quickly. • Allows students to… • Take notes in class • Keep track of important facts and details while reading for homework, • Use the app to create an outline for an upcoming essay or powerpoint. Evernote • Used for note taking and archiving • Allows students to… • Make as many notes as they want (using both text and images) • Sort notes into notebooks • Organize their content with tags. • Upload and share on platforms like Twitter and Facebook. • Includes Skitch • Allows students to edit or annotate pictures they take. • Very user-friendly program • But requires some reading and writing skills (Recommended ages 8+) Workflowy
Apps for Organization • This note taking software included with Microsoft Office. • It allows students • To take note on blank pages • It insert powerpoint slides and notate them • Draw figures and insert pictures next to typed notes for added clarity. • Notes can be stored online and/or offline so they can be accessed anywhere! • Google Keep • The free, online Google version of Onenote/Evernote!