Satire and Irony. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Satire.
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The use of wit or exaggerated humor to ridicule a subject, usually a human weakness (foible), or some social institution with the intention to inspire reform. (Making a serious point about the subject’s defects, with the intent of improving them.)
Example: Chapter 12- “See? He'll be drownded, and won't have nobody to blame for it but his own self. I reckon that's a considerable sight better'n killin' of him. I'm unfavorable to killin' a man as long as you can git aroun' it; it ain't good sense, it ain't good morals. Ain't I right?”
This misguided man judges it a lesser crime to let a man drown than to kill him outright. Here, Twain satirizes the idiocy and cruelty of human society.
Example: Chapter 17- “I bet you can't spell my name,' says I.'I bet you what you dare I can', says he.'All right,' says I, 'go ahead.''G-e-o-r-g-e J-a-x-o-n-there now,' he says.'Well,' says I, 'you done it, but I didn't think you could.It ain't no slouch of a name to spell-right off without studying. I set down, private, because somebody might want me to spell it next, and so I wanted to be handy with it and rattle it off like I was used to it."
Ironically, Buck misspells Huck's pseudonym, and Huck memorizes the misspelling in case someone asks him about it.
Example: Chapter 18- "Each person had their own nigger to wait on them-Buck too. My nigger had a monstrous easy time, because I warn't used to having anybody do anything for me, but Buck's was on the jump most of the time."
Most people in Huck's place would have loved having a personal servant, but Huck is uncomfortable, and refuses to take advantage of the man assigned to him. Although he does adhere to aspects of racism ingrained in him due to his upbringing, he has more respect for blacks than most Southerners of the time.