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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

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  1. Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionSCHIFFMAN & KANUK Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

  2. Attitudes A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

  3. What are Attitudes? • The attitude “object” • Attitudes are a learned predisposition • Attitudes have consistency • Attitudes occur within a situation

  4. Figure 8.1 Wendy’s Offers Salads To Differentiate Itself

  5. Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Muliattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model

  6. Figure 8.2 A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Conation Affect Cognition

  7. The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive Component • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. • Affective Component • A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. • Conative Component • The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.

  8. Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.

  9. Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward-object model • Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations • The attitude-toward-behavior model • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself • Theory-of-reasoned-action model • A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes

  10. Attitude-Toward-Behavior Model A model that proposes that a consumer’s attitude toward a specific behavior is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable).

  11. Theory of Reasoned Action A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes,intentions, and behavior.

  12. Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes Evaluation of the outcomes Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents Attitude toward the behavior Subjective norm Intention Behavior Figure 8.4 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action

  13. Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).

  14. Figure 8.5 Ad Illustrating the Theory of Trying to Consume

  15. Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I wonder whether my fingernails will be longer by the time of my wedding.” “I want to try to lose fifteen pounds by next summer.” “I’m going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I go to the gym from two to four times a week.” “Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first ten people to call in will receive a free T-shirt.” “Sorry, the shoes didn’t come in this shipment from Italy.” “There are only three bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.” “I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of a problem with the oven.”

  16. Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.

  17. Figure 8.6 A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Exposure to an Ad Judgments about the Ad (Cognition) Feelings from the Ad (Affect) Beliefs about the Brand Attitude toward the Ad Attitude toward the Brand

  18. Issues in Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned • Sources of influence on attitude formation • Personality factors

  19. Figure 8.8EncouragingTrial

  20. Strategies of Attitude Change • Changing the Basic Motivational Function • Associating the Product With an Admired Group or Event • Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model • Changing Beliefs About Competitors’ Brands

  21. Four Basic Attitude Functions • The Utilitarian Function • The Ego-defensive Function • The Value-expressive Function • The Knowledge Function

  22. Figure 8.9 Clorox Uses A Utilitarian Appeal

  23. Figure 8.10 Suave Uses Ego Defensive Appeal

  24. Figure 8.11 AC Delco Uses a Value-Expressive Appeal

  25. Figure 8.12 A Knowledge Appeal

  26. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.

  27. Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Form Attitude

  28. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.

  29. Figure 8.17 Reducing Cognitive Dissonance

  30. Postpurchase Dissonance Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment. Consumers resolve this dissonance through a variety of strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of their choice.

  31. Attribution Theory A theory concerned with how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior.

  32. Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-perception Theory • Foot-In-The-Door Technique • Attributions Toward Others • Attributions Toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions

  33. Self-Perception Theory A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior.

  34. Defensive Attribution A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution).

  35. Criteria for Causal Attributions • Distinctiveness • Consistency Over Time • Consistency Over Modality • Consensus