Western Expansion TEST REVIEW
TELEGRAPH • 1861 the telegraph used electricity to send news across the country. • Developed by Samuel Morse
PONY EXPRESS • These riders could deliver mail across the West from Missouri to California in just 10 days.
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD • This connected the country from Nebraska to California. • Central Pacific railroad began in Sacramento California and went across the Sierra Nevada mountains. • Central Pacific used Chinese workers to build across the mountains • Union Pacific went across the great plains • The tracks met at Promontory Point, Utah
PIONEERS ON THE PLAINS • Homestead Act-A law that offered free land to American citizens and immigrants. • Homesteader-a settler who claimed land using the Homestead Act • Sodbuster- a farmer I the Great Plains who had to rip up tough grass before planting crops • Exoduster-African Americans who left the discrimination in the East to settle on the Great Plains.
Great Plains • Challenges faced by homesteaders were: • Harsh weather • Grasshoppers • Thick sod • Technology: Strong steel plows • Windmills • Barbed wire
COWBOYS AND MINERS • Cattle Drive- a huge herd of cattle guided by cowboys • Gold rush- a period of time when people went West in search of gold • 1859 Gold is found in the Rockies • Cattle were shipped to the east because they were worth more money • Barbed wire fences and railroads brought the cattle drives to an end
GOLD • Lasting effects of gold rushes were: • More people in the west • Supply stations grew into major cities • Opportunities for entreprenuers
Native Americans • reservation-an area of land set aside for Native Americans • Battle of Little Bighorn- the battle in which General Custer was defeated by the Lakota and Cheyenne tribes. • Chief Joseph and Nez Perce surrounded by US forces.
Native Americans • Threats to their way of life were: • Decline in buffalo • Spreading telegraph and railroad lines • Arrival of miners, farmers, and ranchers
Custer’s Last Stand • Custer and all his men were killed in the battle at little big horn.