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A New Industrial Age. Chapter 6 Franz. The Expansion of Industry. Section 1. Learning Targets. I can explain why industry improved so much in the late 1800’s. I can evaluate how new technology changed Americans’ lives. Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization. Some Background…

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a new industrial age

A New Industrial Age

Chapter 6


learning targets
Learning Targets
  • I can explain why industry improved so much in the late 1800’s.
  • I can evaluate how new technology changed Americans’ lives.
natural resources fuel industrialization
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
  • Some Background…
    • After Civil War, U.S. was still farming nation
    • By 1920, became industrial power
    • Industrial Boom due to:
      • Natural Resources
      • Gov’t support of business
      • Growing Urban Population
natural resources fuel industrialization5
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
  • Black Gold
    • Native Americans used oil for natural uses
    • By 1840, Americans used it to light lamps
    • Edwin L. Drake
      • Used steam engine to pump oil out of ground
    • Oil Boom
      • Oil companies started up across the nation
      • Started to distill oil into kerosene
      • Would later discover use for gasoline too
natural resources fuel industrialization7
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
  • Bessemer Steel Process (1850)
    • Coal and Iron were abundant
    • Injected air into molten (hot) iron to remove carbon and other impurities
    • This created early version of steel!
      • Much stronger
      • Easy to make, abundant resources
      • What can you do with steel?
natural resources fuel industrialization8
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
  • New Uses for Steel:
    • Railroads (track)
    • Farming Machinery
    • HUGE construction
      • Brooklyn Bridge (1883)
      • Skyscrapers
inventions promote change
Inventions Promote Change
  • Some Background…
    • Plentiful resources and impressive ingenuity changed the way people lived and worked
inventions promote change10
Inventions Promote Change
  • The Power of Electricity:
    • Thomas Edison (1876):
      • Perfected incandescent light bulb
      • Created system that distributed electricity across city
    • By 1890, electricity powered most businesses
      • Could locate wherever they wanted
      • Allowed business to grow tremendously
inventions promote change11
Inventions Promote Change
  • Inventions Change Lifestyles:
    • Christopher Sholes
      • The Typewriter
    • Alexander Graham Bell
      • The Telephone
    • Women found work in factories
    • Workers’ standard of living improved
      • Less back breaking work
      • 10 fewer hours each week
learning targets13
Learning Targets
  • I can explain how the transcontinental railroad influenced American Business
  • I can describe how the Federal government influenced railroads
a little background
A Little Background…
  • The growth of railroads benefitted the nation, but also led to corruption and led to the need for government regulation.
railroads span time and space
Railroads Span Time and Space
  • A National Network:
    • By 1856, went to the Mississippi River
    • Transcontinental Railroad
      • By 1869, the U.S. had a railroad that went from east coast to west coast
      • 1865 = 30,000 miles of track
      • 1890 = 180,000 miles of track!
railroads span time and space16
Railroads Span Time and Space
  • Romance and Reality:
    • Railroad workers have new opportunities
    • Hired Chinese and Irish Immigrants
    • Also hired Civil War veterans desperate for work
    • In 1888, 2,000 men died, 20,000 were injured!
railroads span time and space17
Railroads Span Time and Space
  • Railroad Time:
    • Noon = sun at its highest
      • Noon in Boston was 12 minutes later than New York!
    • 1869, proposed dividing world into 24 time zones
      • U.S. would get four
      • Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific
    • Helped businesses become more efficient
opportunities and opportunists
Opportunities and Opportunists
  • New Towns and Markets:
    • Railroads linked towns
    • This promoted new business
    • New towns emerged along railways
      • Denver and Seattle
opportunities and opportunists19
Opportunities and Opportunists
  • George M. Pullman:
    • Built a factory for making “sleeper” cars for trains
    • Built a city for his workers
    • Provided housing, medicine, etc…
    • Eventually faced a strike when he refused to lower rent, when he cut pay
opportunities and opportunists20
Opportunities and Opportunists
  • Credit Mobilier:
    • Stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad
    • Organized a construction company
    • Gave them a corrupt contract, and pocketed the profits themselves
      • Even game some of the $ to buy congressmen’s approval!
the grange and the railroads
The Grange and the Railroads
  • Railroad Abuses:
    • Railroad companies favored businesses over farmers
    • Often fixed prices with other railroads to eliminate competition and drive up profits
    • Farmers had little choice who to transport goods with
the grange and the railroads22
The Grange and the Railroads
  • Granger Laws:
    • Farmers, or Grangers, got together to try and create change
    • Voted for legislators that would support their cause
    • In Munn vs. Illinois the Supreme court supported the new Granger Laws that limited prices
the grange and the railroads23
The Grange and the Railroads
  • The Interstate Commerce Act:
    • At first, Supreme Court said Federal Government could not regulate trade from state to state
    • So Congress acted:
      • Created Interstate Commerce Act
      • Allowed Fed to control trade by railroad through the states
    • Unfortunately, the act was not well enforced
the grange and the railroads24
The Grange and the Railroads
  • Panic and Consolidation:
    • Corruption, mismanagement, overbuilding, and competition pushed many railroads towards bankruptcy
    • The “Panic of 1893”, an economic depression, made things even worse
    • By 1900, just 7 companies controlled 2/3 of the nations railroads