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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS. Gas Exchange (pick-up O 2 , eliminate CO 2 ) Filter, Warm & Humidify Air Protection Speech Regulate pH. RESPIRATORY SYTEM ORGANIZATION. Upper Respiratory Tract (Outside Thorax) Nose Pharynx Lower Respiratory Tract (Inside Thorax) Larynx

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respiratory system functions
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
  • Gas Exchange (pick-up O2, eliminate CO2)
  • Filter, Warm & Humidify Air
  • Protection
  • Speech
  • Regulate pH
respiratory sytem organization
RESPIRATORY SYTEM ORGANIZATION
  • Upper Respiratory Tract (Outside Thorax)
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
  • Lower Respiratory Tract (Inside Thorax)
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchial Tree
    • Lungs
upper respiratory tract
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
  • Nose
    • External Nares/Anterior Nasal Aperture (nostril)
    • Nasal Cavity
      • Hairs, Mucus (Trap Debris)
      • Mucosa (Warm, Moisten)
      • Cilia (Transport)
      • Nasal Conchae Bones (Turbulence)
      • Olfactory Receptors (Smell)
      • Tear Drainage
upper respiratory tract continued
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued
  • Paranasal Sinuses (4)
    • Spaces in Bone
    • Lined with Mucous Membrane
    • Empty into Nasal Cavity
    • Light Bone, Resonation
  • Internal Nares/Posterior Nasal Aperture (Opening between Nasal Cavity & Nasopharynx)
upper respiratory tract continued10
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued
  • Pharynx (Throat)
    • Between Nasal Cavity & Larynx
    • Passageway for Air & Food
    • 3 Divisions:
      • Nasopharynx (Internal Nares  Soft Palate)
      • Oropharynx (Soft Palate  Base of Tongue)
      • Laryngopharynx (Base of Tongue  Opening to Esophagus)
upper respiratory tract continued12
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued
  • Protected by Tonsils:
    • Pharyngeal Tonsil (“Adenoids”, Nasopharynx)
    • Tubal Tonsils (Nasopharynx, Entrance to Auditory Tubes)
    • Palatine Tonsils (Oropharynx)
    • Lingual Tonsils (Oropharynx)
lower respiratory tract
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
  • Larynx (Hyoid  Cricoid Cartilage)
    • 2 Functions:
      • Keep Movement of Food & Air Separate
      • Provide Sound for Speech
    • Glottis
      • Slit-like Opening into Larynx
      • Produces Speech with Vocal Cords
lower respiratory tract continued
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued
  • Cartilages:
    • Epiglottis
      • Covers Glottis (opening of larynx)
      • Prevents food from Entering Trachea
    • Thyroid (“Adam’s Apple”)
    • Cricoid (Inferior, Encircles Vocal Cords)
lower respiratory tract continued18
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued
  • Trachea (“Windpipe”)
    • “C”-Shaped Tracheal Cartilage Prevents Collapse
    • No Cartilage Posterior, Allows Swallowing
  • Bronchial Tree
    • Branching Airway
    • Carina (Ridge at Bifurcation of Trachea)
    • Supported by Cartilage
slide20
Primary Bronchi

Secondary Bronchi

Tertiary Bronchi

Bronchioles (Terminal & Respiratory)

Alveolar Ducts

Alveoli

lungs
LUNGS
  • Paired (“spongy”) Organs
  • Surfaces
    • Apex (Superior extension, above clavicle)
    • Hilum (Vertical slit on medial surface)
    • Cardiac Notch (Recess on left lung)
    • Base (Inferior, rests on diaphragm)
lower respiratory tract lungs continued
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued
  • Located in thoracic cavity, lateral to heart, superior to diaphragm
  • Protected by pleura (serous membrane)
    • Visceral (inner, covers lung surface)
    • Parietal (outer, lines thoracic cavity)
lower respiratory tract lungs continued27
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued
  • Lobes
    • Right Lung - 3 Lobes: Superior, Middle, Inferior
    • Left Lung - 2 Lobes: Superior, Inferior
  • Fissures
    • Horizontal Fissure (Between Superior & Middle Lobes, Right Lung)
    • Right Oblique Fissure (Middle & Inferior)
    • Left Oblique Fissure (Superior & Inferior)
lower respiratory tract lungs continued29
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued
  • Alveoli
    • Microscopic, Membranous Air Sacs
    • Functional Unit of Lungs, Main Site of Gas Exchange Between Respiratory & Circulatory Systems (by diffusion)
    • Simple Squamous E.T.
    • Surfactant Reduces Surface Tension, Prevents Collapse
respiratory system physiology
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY
  • Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing)
    • Relies on Gas Traveling from High Pressure to Low Pressure (“Negative Pressure System”)
    • 2 Stages:
      • Inspiration (Inhalation)
        • Diaphragm & Intercostal Muscles Contract
        • Volume of Thoracic Cavity Increases, Pressure Decreases
        • Air Rushes into Lungs
respiratory system physiology continued
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued
  • Expiration (Exhalation)
    • Diaphragm & Intercostal Muscles Relax (nerve stimuli halt)
    • Volume of Thoracic Cavity Decreases, Pressure Increases
    • Elastic Recoil of Tissues
    • Air Rushes out of Lungs
respiratory system physiology continued36
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued
  • Respiratory Volumes
    • Tidal Volume (Amount in Single, Relaxed Breath or Breathing Cycle, 500 ml)
    • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (Amount Forcibly Taken in Above TV,  3,000 ml)
    • Expiratory Reserve Volume (Amount Forcibly Exhaled after TV,  1,000 ml)
    • Residual Volume (Always Remains in Lungs)
    • Vital Capacity (Max. Amount Exhaled, TV + IRV + ERV,  4,500 ml)
respiratory system physiology continued38
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued
  • Gas Exchange (Respiration)
    • Occurs Across Respiratory Membrane (Alveolar Wall + Capillary Wall)
    • Alveolar ducts & Respiratory Bronchioles also sites of exchange
    • Gases Diffuse from Area of [High]  [Low]
    • O2 Bound to Hemoglobin + some in plasma
    • Chemoreceptors in Aorta & Carotid Arteries
respiratory system physiology continued39
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued
  • CO2 Transport:
    • Bicarbonate Ion (HCO3-) in RBCs
    • Attached to Hemoglobin
    • Plasma
respiration
RESPIRATION
  • Occurs in two locations:
    • External Respiration
      • Between Alveoli & Pulmonary Capillaries
      • O2 diffuses into blood & CO2 diffuses out
    • Internal Respiration
      • Between Systemic Capillaries & Interstitial Spaces
      • O2 diffuses out of blood & CO2 diffuses in
control of breathing
Control of Breathing
  • Respiratory Regulatory Center
    • Medulla – sets the basic rate & rhythm
      • CO2 changes (pH) act as primary stimulus
    • Pons – smooths respiratory pattern
  • Chemoreceptors
    • Medulla oblongata monitors CO2 & pH of CSF
    • Aorta & Carotid Artery detect changes in oxygen concentration